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Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying:
Of the dinar you spend as a contribution in Allah's path, or to set free a slave, or as a sadaqa given to a needy, or to support your family, the one yielding the greatest reward is that which you spent on your family.
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَزُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَأَبُو كُرَيْبٍ - وَاللَّفْظُ لأَبِي كُرَيْبٍ - قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ مُزَاحِمِ بْنِ زُفَرَ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ دِينَارٌ أَنْفَقْتَهُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَدِينَارٌ أَنْفَقْتَهُ فِي رَقَبَةٍ وَدِينَارٌ تَصَدَّقْتَ بِهِ عَلَى مِسْكِينٍ وَدِينَارٌ أَنْفَقْتَهُ عَلَى أَهْلِكَ أَعْظَمُهَا أَجْرًا الَّذِي أَنْفَقْتَهُ عَلَى أَهْلِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters that a person broke fast in Ramadan whereupon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded him to free a slave (as an atonement), and the rest of the hadith is the same as narrated by Ibn Uyaina.

وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ عِيسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، بِهَذَا الإِسْنَادِ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، أَفْطَرَ فِي رَمَضَانَ فَأَمَرَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ بِعِتْقِ رَقَبَةٍ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ بِمِثْلِ حَدِيثِ ابْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ ‏.‏
Narrated Ibn `Umar:
Allah's Apostle enjoined the payment of one Sa' of dates or one Sa' of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the `Id prayer. (One Sa' = 3 Kilograms approx.)
حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ السَّكَنِ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَهْضَمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى الْعَبْدِ وَالْحُرِّ، وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى، وَالصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَأَمَرَ بِهَا أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ النَّاسِ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "If a slave-girl gives birth to a child by her master, he must not sell her, give her away, or bequeath her. He enjoys her and when he dies she is free ."

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، قَالَ أَيُّمَا وَلِيدَةٍ وَلَدَتْ مِنْ سَيِّدِهَا فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَبِيعُهَا وَلاَ يَهَبُهَا وَلاَ يُوَرِّثُهَا وَهُوَ يَسْتَمْتِعُ بِهَا فَإِذَا مَاتَ فَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ ‏.‏
Amr bin Shu'aib narrated from his grandfather that :
the Prophet sent a caller in the roads of Makkah proclaiming "Sadaqatul-Fitr is required upon every Muslim, male or female, free or slave, young or old; it is two Mudd of wheat or its equivalent of a Sa of food."
حَدَّثَنَا عُقْبَةُ بْنُ مُكْرَمٍ الْبَصْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا سَالِمُ بْنُ نُوحٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَعَثَ مُنَادِيًا فِي فِجَاجِ مَكَّةَ ‏ "‏ أَلاَ إِنَّ صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ وَاجِبَةٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ صَغِيرٍ أَوْ كَبِيرٍ مُدَّانِ مِنْ قَمْحٍ أَوْ سِوَاهُ صَاعٌ مِنْ طَعَامٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى عُمَرُ بْنُ هَارُونَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ وَقَالَ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ مِينَاءَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَكَرَ بَعْضَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ ‏.‏ حدثنا جارود حدثنا عمر بن هارون هذا الحديث
Amr bin Su'aib narrated from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah(S.A.W) said:
"Any man who fornicates with a free woman, or a slave woman, then the child born from Zina does not inherit, nor is it inherited from."
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ لَهِيعَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ عَاهَرَ بِحُرَّةٍ أَوْ أَمَةٍ فَالْوَلَدُ وَلَدُ زِنَا لاَ يَرِثُ وَلاَ يُورَثُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَقَدْ رَوَى غَيْرُ ابْنِ لَهِيعَةَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ ‏.‏ وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى هَذَا عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ أَنَّ وَلَدَ الزِّنَا لاَ يَرِثُ مِنْ أَبِيهِ ‏.‏
Narrated Abu Najih As-Sulami:
I heard the Messenger of Allah (saws) say: "Whoever shoots an arrow in the cause of Allah, then he has the reward of freeing a slave." [Abu 'Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan Sahih. Abu Najih is 'Amr bin 'Abasah As-Sulami, and 'Abdullah bin Al-Azraq is 'Abdullah bin Zaid.
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ أَبِي الْجَعْدِ، عَنْ مَعْدَانَ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي نَجِيحٍ السُّلَمِيِّ، رضى الله عنه قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ رَمَى بِسَهْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ لَهُ عَدْلُ مُحَرَّرٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَأَبُو نَجِيحٍ هُوَ عَمْرُو بْنُ عَبَسَةَ السُّلَمِيُّ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الأَزْرَقِ هُوَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ زَيْدٍ ‏.‏
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "A dinar you spend in Allah's way, or to free a slave, or as a charity you give to a needy person, or to support your family, the one yielding the greatest reward is that which you spend on your family".[Muslim].
- وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏:‏ ‏ "‏ دينار أنفقته في سبيل الله، ودينار أنفقته في رقبة، ودينار تصدقت به على مسكين، ودينار أنفقته على أهلك، أعظمها أجرًا الذي أنفقته على أهلك‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه مسلم‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said:
"The Messenger of Allah enjoined Zakatul-Fitr, a Sa' of dates or a Sa of barley, upon the free person and the slave, male and female, young and old, among the Muslims. He commanded that it be given before the people went out to the ('fd) prayer."
أَخْبَرَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ السَّكَنِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَهْضَمٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى الْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدِ وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى وَالصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَأَمَرَ بِهَا أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ النَّاسِ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ ‏.‏
Jabir said:
"The Messenger of Allah ruled that every clan should take part in paying the blood money, and it is not permissible for a freed slave to take a Muslim (other than the one who freed him) as his Mawla (Patron) without the permission (of his former master who set him free)"
أَخْبَرَنَا الْعَبَّاسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَظِيمِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا الضَّحَّاكُ بْنُ مَخْلَدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ جَابِرًا، يَقُولُ كَتَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى كُلِّ بَطْنٍ عُقُولَةً وَلاَ يَحِلُّ لِمَوْلًى أَنْ يَتَوَلَّى مُسْلِمًا بِغَيْرِ إِذْنِهِ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Thawban, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), said:
"The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: 'There are two groups of my Ummah whom Allah will free from the Fire: The group that invades India, and the group that will be with 'Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him.'"
أَخْبَرَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَسَدُ بْنُ مُوسَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا بَقِيَّةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو بَكْرٍ الزُّبَيْدِيُّ، عَنْ أَخِيهِ، مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ عَنْ لُقْمَانَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى بْنِ عَدِيٍّ الْبَهْرَانِيِّ، عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ، مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ عِصَابَتَانِ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أَحْرَزَهُمَا اللَّهُ مِنَ النَّارِ عِصَابَةٌ تَغْزُو الْهِنْدَ وَعِصَابَةٌ تَكُونُ مَعَ عِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Al-Qasim said:
Aisha intended to set free two slaves of her who were spouses. She, therefore, asked the Prophet (saws) about this matter. He commanded to begin with the man before the woman. The narrator Nasr said: Abu 'Ali al-Hanafi reported it to me on the authority of Ubaydullah.
حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَنَصْرُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ زُهَيْرٌ حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَجِيدِ، حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَعْتِقَ، مَمْلُوكَيْنِ لَهَا زَوْجٌ قَالَ فَسَأَلَتِ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَأَمَرَهَا أَنْ تَبْدَأَ بِالرَّجُلِ قَبْلَ الْمَرْأَةِ ‏.‏ قَالَ نَصْرٌ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْحَنَفِيُّ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏
While relating the tradition about Barirah A’ishah said “her husband was a slave, so the Prophet(saws) gave her choice. She chose herself. Had he been a free man, he would not given her choice.”

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، فِي قِصَّةِ بَرِيرَةَ قَالَتْ كَانَ زَوْجُهَا عَبْدًا فَخَيَّرَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاخْتَارَتْ نَفْسَهَا وَلَوْ كَانَ حُرًّا لَمْ يُخَيِّرْهَا ‏.‏
The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Muhammad bin Rashid through a different chain of narrators to the same effect. This version adds “he is the child of fornication for the people of his mother whether she was free or a slave. This attribution of a child to the parents was practiced in the beginning of Islam. The property divided before Islam will not be taken into account.

حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ رَاشِدٍ، بِإِسْنَادِهِ وَمَعْنَاهُ زَادَ وَهُوَ وَلَدُ زِنًا لأَهْلِ أُمِّهِ مَنْ كَانُوا حُرَّةً أَوْ أَمَةً وَذَلِكَ فِيمَا اسْتُلْحِقَ فِي أَوَّلِ الإِسْلاَمِ فَمَا اقْتُسِمَ مِنْ مَالٍ قَبْلَ الإِسْلاَمِ فَقَدْ مَضَى ‏.‏
It was narrated from Thawban, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah (SAW), that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“Anyone whose soul leaves his body and he is free of three things, will enter Paradise: Arrogance, stealing from the spoils of war, and debt.”
حَدَّثَنَا حُمَيْدُ بْنُ مَسْعَدَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ أَبِي الْجَعْدِ، عَنْ مَعْدَانَ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ، - مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم - عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ فَارَقَ الرُّوحُ الْجَسَدَ وَهُوَ بَرِيءٌ مِنْ ثَلاَثٍ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ مِنَ الْكِبْرِ وَالْغُلُولِ وَالدَّيْنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Maimunah bint Sa`d, the freed slave woman of the Prophet (SAW) that :
the Messenger of Allah (SAW) was asked about illegitimate children. He said: “Two sandals in which I wage Jihad are better than freeing an illegitimate child.”
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا الْفَضْلُ بْنُ دُكَيْنٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي يَزِيدَ الضِّنِّيِّ، عَنْ مَيْمُونَةَ بِنْتِ سَعْدٍ، - مَوْلاَةِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم - أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سُئِلَ عَنْ وَلَدِ الزِّنَا فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعْلاَنِ أُجَاهِدُ فِيهِمَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَنْ أُعْتِقَ وَلَدَ الزِّنَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas said:
“A man died at the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw), and he left no heir except for a slave whom he had set free. The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave the legacy to him.”
حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ مُوسَى، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ عَوْسَجَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ مَاتَ رَجُلٌ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلَمْ يَدَعْ لَهُ وَارِثًا إِلاَّ عَبْدًا هُوَ أَعْتَقَهُ فَدَفَعَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِيرَاثَهُ إِلَيْهِ ‏.‏
It was narrated from ‘Amr bin Shu’aib, from his father, from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
“Whoever commits adultery with a slave woman or a free woman, his child is illegitimate, and he cannot inherit from him or be inherited from (i.e., this child cannot inherit from him).”
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كُرَيْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ الْيَمَانِ، عَنِ الْمُثَنَّى بْنِ الصَّبَّاحِ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ عَاهَرَ أَمَةً أَوْ حُرَّةً فَوَلَدُهُ وَلَدُ زِنًا لاَ يَرِثُ وَلاَ يُورَثُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that ‘Amr bin ‘Abasah said:
“I came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, who became a Muslim with you?’ He said: ‘A free man and a slave.’ I said: ‘Is there any hour of the night that is closer to Allah than another?’ He said: ‘Yes, the last half of the night.’”
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ، قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ يَعْلَى بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ طَلْقٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْبَيْلَمَانِيِّ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَبَسَةَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ مَعَكَ قَالَ ‏"‏ حُرٌّ وَعَبْدٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ هَلْ مِنْ سَاعَةٍ أَقْرَبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ أُخْرَى قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ جَوْفُ اللَّيْلِ الأَوْسَطُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A child cannot repay his father unless he finds him as a slave and the buys him and sets him free."

حَدَّثَنَا قَبِيصَةُ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ‏:‏ لاَ يَجْزِي وَلَدٌ وَالِدَهُ، إِلاَّ أَنْ يَجِدَهُ مَمْلُوكًا فَيَشْتَرِيَهُ فَيُعْتِقَهُ‏.‏
Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'The expiation for someone who slaps his slave or beats him more than he deserves is to set him free.'"

حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَوْنٍ، وَمُسَدَّدٌ، قَالاَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ فِرَاسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ زَاذَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ‏:‏ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ‏:‏ مَنْ لَطَمَ عَبْدَهُ أَوْ ضَرَبَهُ حَدًّا لَمْ يَأْتِهِ، فَكَفَّارَتُهُ عِتْقُهُ‏.‏
Ibn ’Umar (RAA) narrated, The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) enjoined the payment of one sa” of dates or one sa' of barley as Zakat-ul-fitr on every Muslim, slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the 'Id prayer.’ Agreed upon.

عَنِ اِبْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: { فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-زَكَاةَ اَلْفِطْرِ, صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ, أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ: عَلَى اَلْعَبْدِ وَالْحُرِّ, وَالذَّكَرِ, وَالْأُنْثَى, وَالصَّغِيرِ, وَالْكَبِيرِ, مِنَ اَلْمُسْلِمِينَ, وَأَمَرَ بِهَا أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ اَلنَّاسِ إِلَى اَلصَّلَاةِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْه ِ 1‏ .‏
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "Whoever frees a Muslim slave, Allah will save all the parts of his body from the (Hell) Fire as he has freed the body-parts of the slave." Sa`id bin Marjana said that he narrated that Hadith to `Ali bin Al-Husain and he freed his slave for whom `Abdullah bin Ja`far had offered him ten thousand Dirhams or one-thousand Dinars.
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي وَاقِدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي سَعِيدٌ ابْنُ مَرْجَانَةَ، صَاحِبُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ قَالَ لِي أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ أَعْتَقَ امْرَأً مُسْلِمًا اسْتَنْقَذَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنْهُ مِنَ النَّارِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ سَعِيدٌ ابْنُ مَرْجَانَةَ فَانْطَلَقْتُ إِلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ فَعَمَدَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ إِلَى عَبْدٍ لَهُ قَدْ أَعْطَاهُ بِهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ عَشَرَةَ آلاَفِ دِرْهَمٍ ـ أَوْ أَلْفَ دِينَارٍ ـ فَأَعْتَقَهُ‏.‏
Malik related to me that Yahya ibn Said said, ''Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr died in his sleep, and A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, set free many slaves for him." Malik said, "This is what I like best of what I have heard on the subject."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ تُوُفِّيَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ فِي نَوْمٍ نَامَهُ فَأَعْتَقَتْ عَنْهُ عَائِشَةُ زَوْجُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم رِقَابًا كَثِيرَةً ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحَبُّ مَا سَمِعْتُ إِلَىَّ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Salamah bin Al-Muhabbaq said:
"The Prophet passed judgment concerning a man who had intercourse with his wife's slave woman: 'If he forced her, then she is free, and he has to give her mistress a similar slave as a replacement; if she obeyed him in that, then she belongs to him, and he has to give her mistress a similar slave as a replacement.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ قَبِيصَةَ بْنِ حُرَيْثٍ، عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْمُحَبَّقِ، قَالَ قَضَى النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي رَجُلٍ وَطِئَ جَارِيَةَ امْرَأَتِهِ ‏ "‏ إِنْ كَانَ اسْتَكْرَهَهَا فَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ وَعَلَيْهِ لِسَيِّدَتِهَا مِثْلُهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ طَاوَعَتْهُ فَهِيَ لَهُ وَعَلَيْهِ لِسَيِّدَتِهَا مِثْلُهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Salamah bin Al-Muhabbaq that a man had intercourse with a slave woman belonging to his wife, and was brought to the Messenger of Allah. He said:
"If he forced her, then she is free at his expense and he has to give her mistress a similar slave as a replacement. If she obeyed him in that, then she belongs to her mistress, and he has to give her mistress a similar slave as well."
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْمُحَبَّقِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، غَشِيَ جَارِيَةً لاِمْرَأَتِهِ فَرُفِعَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنْ كَانَ اسْتَكْرَهَهَا فَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ مِنْ مَالِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ الشَّرْوَى لِسَيِّدَتِهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ طَاوَعَتْهُ فَهِيَ لِسَيِّدَتِهَا وَمِثْلُهَا مِنْ مَالِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“Whoever frees his share of a slave or part of his share, must pay from his wealth if he has any wealth if he has any wealth (in order to buy the rest of the slave's freedom). If he does not have wealth, then the slave should be asked to work for the price (of his freedom), without that causing him too much hardship.”
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بِشْرٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ بَشِيرِ بْنِ نَهِيكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا لَهُ فِي مَمْلُوكٍ أَوْ شِقْصًا فَعَلَيْهِ خَلاَصُهُ مِنْ مَالِهِ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ اسْتُسْعِيَ الْعَبْدُ فِي قِيمَتِهِ غَيْرَ مَشْقُوقٍ عَلَيْهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Zadhan reported that Ibn Umar called his slave and he found the marks (of beating) upon his back. He said to him:
I have caused you pain. He said: No. But he (Ibn Umar) said: You are free. He then took hold of something from the earth and said: There is no reward for me even to the weight equal to it. I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who beats a slave without cognizable offence of his or slaps him (without any serious fault), then expiation for it is that he should set him free.
وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، وَابْنُ، بَشَّارٍ - وَاللَّفْظُ لاِبْنِ الْمُثَنَّى - قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ، بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ فِرَاسٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ذَكْوَانَ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ زَاذَانَ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ، دَعَا بِغُلاَمٍ لَهُ فَرَأَى بِظَهْرِهِ أَثَرًا فَقَالَ لَهُ أَوْجَعْتُكَ قَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَنْتَ عَتِيقٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ شَيْئًا مِنَ الأَرْضِ فَقَالَ مَا لِي فِيهِ مِنَ الأَجْرِ مَا يَزِنُ هَذَا إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ ضَرَبَ غُلاَمًا لَهُ حَدًّا لَمْ يَأْتِهِ أَوْ لَطَمَهُ فَإِنَّ كَفَّارَتَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Umama said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came with two slaves and gave one of them to 'Ali and said, 'Do not beat him. I have forbidden beating the people of the prayer and I saw him praying before we came.' He gave Abu Dharr a slave and said, "I recommend that you treat him well,' so Abu Dharr set him free. He said, 'What have you done?' He replied, 'You commanded me to treat him well, so I set him free.'"

حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، هُوَ ابْنُ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَ‏:‏ أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو غَالِبٍ، عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ، قَالَ‏:‏ أَقْبَلَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَعَهُ غُلامَانِ، فَوَهَبَ أَحَدُهُمَا لِعَلِيٍّ صَلَوَاتُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ، وَقَالَ‏:‏ لاَ تَضْرِبْهُ، فَإِنِّي نُهِيتُ عَنْ ضَرْبِ أَهْلِ الصَّلاَةِ، وَإِنِّي رَأَيْتُهُ يُصَلِّي مُنْذُ أَقْبَلْنَا، وَأَعْطَى أَبَا ذَرٍّ غُلاَمًا، وَقَالَ‏:‏ اسْتَوْصِ بِهِ مَعْرُوفًا فَأَعْتَقَهُ، فَقَالَ‏:‏ مَا فَعَلَ‏؟‏ قَالَ‏:‏ أَمَرْتَنِي أَنْ أَسْتَوْصِي بِهِ خَيْرًا فَأَعْتَقْتُهُ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utba ibn Masud that one of the Ansar came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a black slave- girl of his. He said, "Messenger of Allah, I must set a slave free who is a mumina. If you think that she is mumina, I will free her." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, questioned her, "Do you testify that there is no god but Allah?" She said, "Yes." "Do you testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?" She said, "Yes." "Are you certain about the rising after death?" She said, "Yes." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Free her."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ جَاءَ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِجَارِيَةٍ لَهُ سَوْدَاءَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ عَلَىَّ رَقَبَةً مُؤْمِنَةً فَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَرَاهَا مُؤْمِنَةً أُعْتِقُهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَتَشْهَدِينَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَتَشْهَدِينَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ قَالَتْ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَتُوقِنِينَ بِالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَعْتِقْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported:
There came a slave and pledg- ed allegiance to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) on migration; he (the Holy Prophet) did not know that he was a slave. Then there came his master and demanded him back, whereupon Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves, and he did not afterwards take allegiance from anyone until he had asked him whether he was a slave (or a free man)
حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى التَّمِيمِيُّ، وَابْنُ، رُمْحٍ قَالاَ أَخْبَرَنَا اللَّيْثُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنِيهِ قُتَيْبَةُ، بْنُ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ جَاءَ عَبْدٌ فَبَايَعَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى الْهِجْرَةِ وَلَمْ يَشْعُرْ أَنَّهُ عَبْدٌ فَجَاءَ سَيِّدُهُ يُرِيدُهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ بِعْنِيهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَاشْتَرَاهُ بِعَبْدَيْنِ أَسْوَدَيْنِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُبَايِعْ أَحَدًا بَعْدُ حَتَّى يَسْأَلَهُ ‏"‏ أَعَبْدٌ هُوَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam said the like of that. Malik said that if a man had sexual relations with a female slave that he owned, and then he wanted to also have relations with her sister, the sister was not halal for a man until intercourse with the slave-girl had been made haram for him by marriage, setting free, kitaba, or the like of that - for instance, if he had married her to his slave or someone other than his slave.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنِ الزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْعَوَّامِ، مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الأَمَةِ تَكُونُ عِنْدَ الرَّجُلِ فَيُصِيبُهَا ثُمَّ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُصِيبَ أُخْتَهَا إِنَّهَا لاَ تَحِلُّ لَهُ حَتَّى يُحَرِّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَرْجَ أُخْتِهَا بِنِكَاحٍ أَوْ عِتَاقَةٍ أَوْ كِتَابَةٍ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ يُزَوِّجُهَا عَبْدَهُ أَوْ غَيْرَ عَبْدِهِ ‏.‏
ahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab about the dhihar of a slave. He said, "It is like the dhihar of a free man." Malik said, "He meant that the same conditions were applied in both cases." Malik said, "The dhihar of the slave is incumbent on him, and the fasting of the slave in the dhihar is two months. " Malik said that there was no ila for a slave who pronounced a dhihar from his wife. That was because if he were to fast the kaffara for pronouncing a dhihar, the divorce of the ila would come to him before he had finished the fast.

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ عَنْ ظِهَارِ الْعَبْدِ، فَقَالَ نَحْوُ ظِهَارِ الْحُرِّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ يُرِيدُ أَنَّهُ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ كَمَا يَقَعُ عَلَى الْحُرِّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَظِهَارُ الْعَبْدِ عَلَيْهِ وَاجِبٌ وَصِيَامُ الْعَبْدِ فِي الظِّهَارِ شَهْرَانِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْعَبْدِ يَتَظَاهَرُ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يَدْخُلُ عَلَيْهِ إِيلاَءٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَوْ ذَهَبَ يَصُومُ صِيَامَ كَفَّارَةِ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقُ الإِيلاَءِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَفْرُغَ مِنْ صِيَامِهِ ‏.‏
And Safiyya bint 'Ubaid said:
"A governmental male-slave tried to seduce a slave-girl from the Khumus of the war booty till he deflowered her by force against her will; therefore 'Umar flogged him according to the law, and exiled him, but he did not flog the female slave because the male-slave had committed illegal sexual intercourse by force, against her will." Az-Zuhri said regarding a virgin slave-girl raped by a free man: The judge has to fine the adulterer as much money as is equal to the price of the female slave and the adulterer has to be flogged (according to the Islamic Law); but if the slave woman is a matron, then, according to the verdict of the Imam, the adulterer is not fined but he has to receive the legal punishment (according to the Islamic Law).
وَقَالَ اللَّيْثُ حَدَّثَنِي نَافِعٌ، أَنَّ صَفِيَّةَ ابْنَةَ أَبِي عُبَيْدٍ، أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّ عَبْدًا مِنْ رَقِيقِ الإِمَارَةِ وَقَعَ عَلَى وَلِيدَةٍ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ، فَاسْتَكْرَهَهَا حَتَّى افْتَضَّهَا، فَجَلَدَهُ عُمَرُ الْحَدَّ وَنَفَاهُ، وَلَمْ يَجْلِدِ الْوَلِيدَةَ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّهُ اسْتَكْرَهَهَا‏.‏ قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ فِي الأَمَةِ الْبِكْرِ، يَفْتَرِعُهَا الْحُرُّ، يُقِيمُ ذَلِكَ الْحَكَمُ مِنَ الأَمَةِ الْعَذْرَاءِ بِقَدْرِ قِيمَتِهَا، وَيُجْلَدُ، وَلَيْسَ فِي الأَمَةِ الثَّيِّبِ فِي قَضَاءِ الأَئِمَّةِ غُرْمٌ، وَلَكِنْ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدُّ‏.‏
Mu'awiya b. Suwaid reported:
I slapped a slave belonging to us and then fled away. I came back just before noon and offered prayer behind my father. He called him (the slave) and me and said: Do as he has done to you. He granted pardon. He (my father) then said: We belonged to the family of Muqarrin during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him. and had only one slave-girl and one of us slapped her. This news reached Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he said: Set her free. They (the members of the family) said: There is no other servant except she. Thereupon he said: Then employ her and when you can afford to dispense with her services, then set her free.
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ نُمَيْرٍ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ نُمَيْرٍ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ - حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ كُهَيْلٍ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ، قَالَ لَطَمْتُ مَوْلًى لَنَا فَهَرَبْتُ ثُمَّ جِئْتُ قُبَيْلَ الظُّهْرِ فَصَلَّيْتُ خَلْفَ أَبِي فَدَعَاهُ وَدَعَانِي ثُمَّ قَالَ امْتَثِلْ مِنْهُ ‏.‏ فَعَفَا ثُمَّ قَالَ كُنَّا بَنِي مُقَرِّنٍ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَيْسَ لَنَا إِلاَّ خَادِمٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَلَطَمَهَا أَحَدُنَا فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَعْتِقُوهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا لَيْسَ لَهُمْ خَادِمٌ غَيْرُهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ فَلْيَسْتَخْدِمُوهَا فَإِذَا اسْتَغْنَوْا عَنْهَا فَلْيُخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Zadhan Abl Umar reported:
I came to Ibn 'Umar as he had granted freedom to a stave. He (the narrator further) said: He took hold of a wood or something like it from the earth and said: It (freedom of a slave) has not the reward evert equal to it, but the fact that I heard Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) say: He who slaps his slave or beats him, the expiation for it is that he should set him free.
حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو كَامِلٍ، فُضَيْلُ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ الْجَحْدَرِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ فِرَاسٍ، عَنْ ذَكْوَانَ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ زَاذَانَ أَبِي عُمَرَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ وَقَدْ أَعْتَقَ مَمْلُوكًا - قَالَ - فَأَخَذَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ عُودًا أَوْ شَيْئًا فَقَالَ مَا فِيهِ مِنَ الأَجْرِ مَا يَسْوَى هَذَا إِلاَّ أَنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ لَطَمَ مَمْلُوكَهُ أَوْ ضَرَبَهُ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهُ ‏"‏.
Hilal b. Yasaf reported that a person got angry and slapped his slave-girl. Thereupon Suwaid b. Muqarrin said to him:
You could find no other part (to slap) but the prominent part of her face. See I was one of the seven sons of Muqarrin, and we had but only one slave-girl. The youngest of us slapped her, and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to set her free. 2097
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نُمَيْرٍ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لأَبِي بَكْرٍ - قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ إِدْرِيسَ، عَنْ حُصَيْنٍ، عَنْ هِلاَلِ بْنِ يَسَافٍ، قَالَ عَجِلَ شَيْخٌ فَلَطَمَ خَادِمًا لَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ سُوَيْدُ بْنُ مُقَرِّنٍ عَجَزَ عَلَيْكَ إِلاَّ حُرُّ وَجْهِهَا لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنِي سَابِعَ سَبْعَةٍ مِنْ بَنِي مُقَرِّنٍ مَا لَنَا خَادِمٌ إِلاَّ وَاحِدَةٌ لَطَمَهَا أَصْغَرُنَا فَأَمَرَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ نُعْتِقَهَا ‏.‏
Jabir is reported to have said:
A person amongst the Ansar who had no other property declared a slave free after his death. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sold him, and Ibn al-Nahham bought him and he was a Coptic slave (who) died in the first year of the Caliphate of Ibn Zubair.
وَحَدَّثَنَاهُ أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ، قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، قَالَ سَمِعَ عَمْرٌو، جَابِرًا يَقُولُ دَبَّرَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ غُلاَمًا لَهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُ فَبَاعَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ قَالَ جَابِرٌ فَاشْتَرَاهُ ابْنُ النَّحَّامِ عَبْدًا قِبْطِيًّا مَاتَ عَامَ أَوَّلَ فِي إِمَارَةِ ابْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ ‏.‏
Narrated `Aisha:
I bought Barira (a female slave). The Prophet said (to me), "Buy her as the Wala' is for the manumitted." Once she was given a sheep (in charity). The Prophet said, "It (the sheep) is a charitable gift for her (Barira) and a gift for us." Al-Hakam said, "Barira's husband was a free man." Ibn `Abbas said, 'When I saw him, he was a slave."
حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتِ اشْتَرَيْتُ بَرِيرَةَ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ اشْتَرِيهَا، فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏‏.‏ وَأُهْدِيَ لَهَا شَاةٌ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ هُوَ لَهَا صَدَقَةٌ، وَلَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ الْحَكَمُ وَكَانَ زَوْجُهَا حُرًّا، وَقَوْلُ الْحَكَمِ مُرْسَلٌ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَأَيْتُهُ عَبْدًا‏.‏
Malik related to me that he had heard that Umar ibn al-Khattab or Uthman ibn Affan gave a judgement about a slave woman who misled a man about herself and said that she was free. He married her and she bore children. It was decided that he should ransom his children with their like of slaves. Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "To ransom them with their price is more equitable in this case, Allah willing."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، أَوْ عُثْمَانَ بْنَ عَفَّانَ قَضَى أَحَدُهُمَا فِي امْرَأَةٍ غَرَّتْ رَجُلاً بِنَفْسِهَا وَذَكَرَتْ أَنَّهَا حُرَّةٌ فَتَزَوَّجَهَا فَوَلَدَتْ لَهُ أَوْلاَدًا فَقَضَى أَنْ يَفْدِيَ وَلَدَهُ بِمِثْلِهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى سَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ وَالْقِيمَةُ أَعْدَلُ فِي هَذَا إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz gave a decision that when a jew or christian was killed, his blood-money was half the blood-money of a free muslim. Malik said, "What is done in our community, is that a muslim is not killed for a kafir unless the muslim kills him by deceit. Then he is killed for it."

وَحَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، قَضَى أَنَّ دِيَةَ الْيَهُودِيِّ، أَوِ النَّصْرَانِيِّ - إِذَا قُتِلَ أَحَدُهُمَا - مِثْلُ نِصْفِ دِيَةِ الْحُرِّ الْمُسْلِمِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنْ لاَ يُقْتَلَ مُسْلِمٌ بِكَافِرٍ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَقْتُلَهُ مُسْلِمٌ قَتْلَ غِيْلَةٍ فَيُقْتَلُ بِهِ ‏.‏
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "He who sets free a Muslim slave, Allah will deliver from the fire of Hell every limb of his body in return for every limb of the slave's body, even his private parts."[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
- وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ قال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏:‏ ‏ "‏من أعتق رقبة مسلمة أعتق الله بكل عضو منه عضوًا منه من النار حتى فرجه بفرجه‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏متفق عليه‏)‏‏)‏
Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Three kinds of people will have a double reward: A man from the People of the Book who believes in his Prophet and (also) believes in Muhammad; a slave who discharges properly the duties towards Allah and towards his master; and a man who possesses a slave-girl and teaches her manners, educates her well, and frees her and then marries her."[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
- وعنه قال‏:‏ قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏:‏ ‏ "‏ثلاثة لهم أجران‏:‏ رجل من أهل الكتاب آمن بنبيه، وآمن بمحمد، والعبد المملوك إذا أدى حق الله، وحق مواليه، ورجل كانت له أمة فأدبها فأحسن تأديبها وعلمها فأحسن تعليمها، ثم أعتقها فتزوجها فله أجران‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏متفق عليه‏)‏‏)‏
It was narrated from 'Umar bin Mu'attib that Abu Hasan, the freed slave of Banu Nawfal, said:
"My wife and I were slaves, and I divorced her twice, then we were both set free. I asked Ibn 'Abbas and he said: 'If you take her back, you have two divorces left. This is how the Messenger of Allah ruled.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ يَحْيَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ مُعَتِّبٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا حَسَنٍ، مَوْلَى بَنِي نَوْفَلٍ أَخْبَرَهُ قَالَ كُنْتُ أَنَا وَامْرَأَتِي، مَمْلُوكَيْنِ فَطَلَّقْتُهَا تَطْلِيقَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ أُعْتِقْنَا جَمِيعًا فَسَأَلْتُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ فَقَالَ إِنْ رَاجَعْتَهَا كَانَتْ عِنْدَكَ عَلَى وَاحِدَةٍ قَضَى بِذَلِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ خَالَفَهُ مَعْمَرٌ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Abu Al-Hasan, the freed slave of Banu Nawfal, said:
"Ibn 'Abbas was asked about a slave who divorced his wife twice, then they were set free; could he marry her? He said: 'Yes.' He said: 'From whom (did you hear that)?' He said: 'The Messenger of Allah issued a Fatwa to that effect.'" (One of the narrators) 'Abdur-Razzaq said: "Ibn Al-Mubarak said to Ma'mar: 'Which Al-Hasan is this? He has taken on a heavy burden.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ مُعَتِّبٍ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، مَوْلَى بَنِي نَوْفَلٍ قَالَ سُئِلَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ عَنْ عَبْدٍ طَلَّقَ، امْرَأَتَهُ تَطْلِيقَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ عُتِقَا أَيَتَزَوَّجُهَا قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ عَمَّنْ قَالَ أَفْتَى بِذَلِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ قَالَ ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ لِمَعْمَرٍ الْحَسَنُ هَذَا مَنْ هُوَ لَقَدْ حَمَلَ صَخْرَةً عَظِيمَةً ‏.‏
It was narrated from 'Aishah that she bought Barirah from some of the Ansar who stipulated that her Wala' should go to them. The Messenger of Allah said:
"Al-Wala' is to the one who did the favor (of setting the slave free)." The Messenger of Allah gave her the choice, as her husband was a slave. And she gave some meat to 'Aishah as a gift, and the Messenger of Allah said: "Why don't you give me some of this meat?" 'Aishah said: "It was given in charity to Barirah." He said: "It is a charity for her, and a gift for us."
أَخْبَرَنَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ زَكَرِيَّا بْنِ دِينَارٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حُسَيْنٌ، عَنْ زَائِدَةَ، عَنْ سِمَاكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا اشْتَرَتْ بَرِيرَةَ مِنْ أُنَاسٍ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ فَاشْتَرَطُوا الْوَلاَءَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ وَلِيَ النِّعْمَةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَخَيَّرَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَكَانَ زَوْجُهَا عَبْدًا وَأَهْدَتْ لِعَائِشَةَ لَحْمًا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ لَوْ وَضَعْتُمْ لَنَا مِنْ هَذَا اللَّحْمِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ تُصُدِّقَ بِهِ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ هُوَ عَلَيْهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَهُوَ لَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
The Messenger of Allah (saws) gave judgment about the slave who had made an agreement to purchase his freedom (mukatab) and he had been killed that blood-wit is paid for him at the rate paid for a free man so far as he has paid the purchase money, and at the rate paid for a slave as the remainder is concerned.
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، وَحَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، وَحَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْلَى بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ الصَّوَّافُ، جَمِيعًا عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ قَضَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي دِيَةِ الْمُكَاتَبِ يُقْتَلُ يُودَى مَا أَدَّى مِنْ مُكَاتَبَتِهِ دِيَةَ الْحُرِّ وَمَا بَقِيَ دِيَةَ الْمَمْلُوكِ ‏.‏
Narrated 'Amr b. Suh'aib:
On his father's authority, said that his grandfather reported the Messenger of Allah (saws) said: The blood-wit for a man who makes a covenant is half of the blood-wit for a free man. Abu Dawud said: It has been transmitted by Usamah b. Zaid al-Laithi and 'Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith on the authority of 'Amr b. Suh'aib in similar manner.
حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ خَالِدِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ الرَّمْلِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ دِيَةُ الْمُعَاهِدِ نِصْفُ دِيَةِ الْحُرِّ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ رَوَاهُ أُسَامَةُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ اللَّيْثِيُّ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ مِثْلَهُ ‏.‏
Narrated Abu Hurairah:
A man brought the Prophet (saws) a black slave girl. He said: Messenger of Allah, emancipation of believing slave is due to me. He asked her: Where is Allah ? She pointed to the heaven with her finger. He then asked her: Who am I ? She pointed to the Prophet (saws) and to the heaven, that is to say: You are the Messenger of Allah. He then said: Set her free, she is a believer.
حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ الْجُوزَجَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ هَارُونَ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي الْمَسْعُودِيُّ، عَنْ عَوْنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، ‏:‏ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِجَارِيَةٍ سَوْدَاءَ فَقَالَ ‏:‏ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ عَلَىَّ رَقَبَةً مُؤْمِنَةً ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا ‏:‏ ‏"‏ أَيْنَ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ بِأُصْبُعِهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا ‏:‏ ‏"‏ فَمَنْ أَنَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَإِلَى السَّمَاءِ، يَعْنِي أَنْتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏:‏ ‏"‏ أَعْتِقْهَا فَإِنَّهَا مُؤْمِنَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Aishah said:
'Three Sunan were established because of Barirah: She was given the choice (of whether to remain married) when she was freed, and her husband was a slave; they used to give her charity and she used to give it as a gift to the Prophet (SAW), and he would say: 'It is charity for her and a gift for us,' and he said, the 'Wala' is for the one who set the slave free.'"
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ مَضَى فِي بَرِيرَةَ ثَلاَثُ سُنَنٍ خُيِّرَتْ حِينَ أُعْتِقَتْ وَكَانَ زَوْجُهَا مَمْلُوكًا وَكَانُوا يَتَصَدَّقُونَ عَلَيْهَا فَتُهْدِي إِلَى النَّبِيِّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فَيَقُولُ ‏"‏ هُوَ عَلَيْهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَهُوَ لَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ‏"‏ الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Mas'ud said, "I was beating a slave of mine when I heard a voice behind me, 'Know, Abu Mas'ud, that Allah is able to call you to account for this slave.' I turned around and there was the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, he is free for the sake of Allah!' He said, 'If you had not done that, the Fire would have touched you (or the Fire would have burned you).'"

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلاَمٍ، قَالَ‏:‏ أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ التَّيْمِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ‏:‏ كُنْتُ أَضْرِبُ غُلاَمًا لِي، فَسَمِعْتُ مِنْ خَلْفِي صَوْتًا‏:‏ اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ، لَلَّهُ أَقْدَرُ عَلَيْكَ مِنْكَ عَلَيْهِ، فَالْتَفَتُّ فَإِذَا هُوَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، قُلْتُ‏:‏ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، فَهُوَ حُرٌّ لِوَجْهِ اللهِ، فَقَالَ‏:‏ أَمَا لَوْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ لَمَسَّتْكَ النَّارُ أَوْ لَلَفَحَتْكَ النَّارُ‏.‏
Ibn ’Abbas (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, “The Diyah (Blood money) of a slave who had made an agreement to buy his freedom (Mukatib) and had been killed, is paid at the rate paid for a free man (as a Diyah) as much as he has paid of the amount agreed upon, and at the rate paid for a slave as the remainder is concerned.” Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Au-Nasa’i.

وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏-رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا‏- أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { يُودَى اَلْمُكَاتَبُ بِقَدْرِ مَا عَتَقَ مِنْهُ دِيَةَ اَلْحُرِّ, وَبِقَدْرِ مَا رَقَّ مِنْهُ دِيَةَ اَلْعَبْدِ } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَالنَّسَائِيّ ُ 1‏ .‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdu Rabbih ibn Said ibn Qays that Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman said that Abdullah ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayra were asked when a pregnant woman whose husband had died could remarry. Ibn Abbas said, "At the end of two periods." Abu Hurayra said, "When she gives birth, she is free to marry." Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman visited Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked her about it Umm Salama said, ''Subaya al-Aslamiya gave birth half a month after the death of her husband, and two men asked to marry her. One was young and the other was old. She preferred the young man and so the older man said, 'You are not free to marry yet.' Her family were away and he hoped that when her family came, they would give her to him. She went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'You are free to marry, so marry whomever you wish.' "

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ رَبِّهِ بْنِ سَعِيدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سُئِلَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ الْحَامِلِ يُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ آخِرَ الأَجَلَيْنِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ إِذَا وَلَدَتْ فَقَدْ حَلَّتْ ‏.‏ فَدَخَلَ أَبُو سَلَمَةَ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَأَلَهَا عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَتْ أُمُّ سَلَمَةَ وَلَدَتْ سُبَيْعَةُ الأَسْلَمِيَّةُ بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ زَوْجِهَا بِنِصْفِ شَهْرٍ فَخَطَبَهَا رَجُلاَنِ أَحَدُهُمَا شَابٌّ وَالآخَرُ كَهْلٌ فَحَطَّتْ إِلَى الشَّابِّ فَقَالَ الشَّيْخُ لَمْ تَحِلِّي بَعْدُ ‏.‏ وَكَانَ أَهْلُهَا غَيَبًا وَرَجَا إِذَا جَاءَ أَهْلُهَا أَنْ يُؤْثِرُوهُ بِهَا فَجَاءَتْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ قَدْ حَلَلْتِ فَانْكِحِي مَنْ شِئْتِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
And Malik related to me that he had heard that a man came to Abdullah ibn Umar and said, "Abu Abd ar-Rahman, I gave a man a loan and stipulated that he give me better than what I lent him." Abdullah ibn Umar said, "That is usury." Abdullah said, "Loans are of three types:
A free loan which you lend by which you desire the pleasure of Allah, and so you have the pleasure of Allah. A free loan which you lend by which you desire the pleasure of your companion, so you have the pleasure of your companion, and a free loan which you lend by which you take what is impure by what is pure, and that is usury." He said, "What do you order me to do, Abu Abd ar-Rahman?" He said, "I think that you should tear up the agreement. If he gives you the like of what you lent him, accept it. If he gives you less than what you lent him, take it and you will be rewarded. If he gives you better than what you lent him, of his own good will, that is his gratitude to you and you have the wage of the period you gave him the loan."
وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، أَتَى عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ إِنِّي أَسْلَفْتُ رَجُلاً سَلَفًا وَاشْتَرَطْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَفْضَلَ مِمَّا أَسْلَفْتُهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ فَذَلِكَ الرِّبَا ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ تَأْمُرُنِي يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ السَّلَفُ عَلَى ثَلاَثَةِ وُجُوهٍ سَلَفٌ تُسْلِفُهُ تُرِيدُ بِهِ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَلَكَ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ وَسَلَفٌ تُسْلِفُهُ تُرِيدُ بِهِ وَجْهَ صَاحِبِكَ فَلَكَ وَجْهُ صَاحِبِكَ وَسَلَفٌ تُسْلِفُهُ لِتَأْخُذَ خَبِيثًا بِطَيِّبٍ فَذَلِكَ الرِّبَا ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ تَأْمُرُنِي يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَ أَرَى أَنْ تَشُقَّ الصَّحِيفَةَ فَإِنْ أَعْطَاكَ مِثْلَ الَّذِي أَسْلَفْتَهُ قَبِلْتَهُ وَإِنْ أَعْطَاكَ دُونَ الَّذِي أَسْلَفْتَهُ فَأَخَذْتَهُ أُجِرْتَ وَإِنْ أَعْطَاكَ أَفْضَلَ مِمَّا أَسْلَفْتَهُ طَيِّبَةً بِهِ نَفْسُهُ فَذَلِكَ شُكْرٌ شَكَرَهُ لَكَ وَلَكَ أَجْرُ مَا أَنْظَرْتَهُ ‏.‏
'Abdullah b. 'Umar reported that 'Umar b. Khattab asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as he was at ji'rana (a town near Mecca) on his way back from Ta'if:
Messenger of Allah, I had taken a vow during the days of Ignorance that I would observe I'tikaf for one day in the Sacred Mosque. So what is your opinion? He said: Go and observe I'tikaf for a day. And Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave him a slave girl out of the one-fifth (of the spoils of war meant for the Holy Prophet). And when Allah's Messenger (inay peace be upon him) set the war prisoners free. 'Umar b. Khattab heard their voice as they were saying: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) has set as free. He (Hadrat 'Umar) said: What is this? They said: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) has set free the prisoners of war (which had fallen to the lot of people). Thereupon he (Hadrat 'Umar) said: Abdullah, go to that slave-girl and set her free.
وَحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ، أَنَّ أَيُّوبَ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ نَافِعًا حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ سَأَلَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ بِالْجِعْرَانَةِ بَعْدَ أَنْ رَجَعَ مِنَ الطَّائِفِ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ أَنْ أَعْتَكِفَ يَوْمًا فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ فَكَيْفَ تَرَى قَالَ ‏ "‏ اذْهَبْ فَاعْتَكِفْ يَوْمًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدْ أَعْطَاهُ جَارِيَةً مِنَ الْخُمْسِ فَلَمَّا أَعْتَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سَبَايَا النَّاسِ سَمِعَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ يَقُولُونَ أَعْتَقَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا فَقَالُوا أَعْتَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سَبَايَا النَّاسِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ اذْهَبْ إِلَى تِلْكَ الْجَارِيَةِ فَخَلِّ سَبِيلَهَا ‏.‏
It was narrated that 'Aishah said:
"Barirah came to me and said: 'O 'Sishah, I have drawn up a contract of manumission with my master, (to buy my freedom) in return for nine Uwqiyah, one Uwqiyah to be paid each year; help me,' she had not yet paid anything toward her contract of manumission.' 'Aishah, who liked her and wanted to help her, said: 'Go back to your masters and if they agree to let me pay the whole sum and that your loyalty will be to me, I will do it.' So Barirah went to her masters and suggested that to them, but they refused and said: 'if she wants to seek reward (with Allah) by freeing you, let her do so, but (you loyalty) will be to us, 'Aishah told the Messenger of Allah about that and he said: 'Do not let that stop you. Buy her and set her free, and loyalty belongs to the one who sets the slave free.; so she did that, then the Messenger of Allah stood up before the people, praised and glorified Allah, then said: 'What is the matter with people who stipulate conditions that are not in the Book of Allah? Whoever stipulates conditions that are not in even if there are a hundred conditions? The decree of Allah takes priority, and the conditions of Allah binding. And loyalty belongs to the one who sets the slaves free.'
أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي رِجَالٌ، مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ يُونُسُ وَاللَّيْثُ أَنَّ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ أَخْبَرَهُمْ عَنْ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ جَاءَتْ بَرِيرَةُ إِلَىَّ فَقَالَتْ يَا عَائِشَةُ إِنِّي كَاتَبْتُ أَهْلِي عَلَى تِسْعِ أَوَاقٍ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ أُوقِيَّةٌ فَأَعِينِينِي ‏.‏ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ قَضَتْ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهَا شَيْئًا فَقَالَتْ لَهَا عَائِشَةُ وَنَفِسَتْ فِيهَا ارْجِعِي إِلَى أَهْلِكِ فَإِنْ أَحَبُّوا أَنْ أُعْطِيَهُمْ ذَلِكَ جَمِيعًا وَيَكُونَ وَلاَؤُكِ لِي فَعَلْتُ ‏.‏ فَذَهَبَتْ بَرِيرَةُ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا فَعَرَضَتْ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَأَبَوْا وَقَالُوا إِنْ شَاءَتْ أَنْ تَحْتَسِبَ عَلَيْكِ فَلْتَفْعَلْ وَيَكُونَ ذَلِكَ لَنَا ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ عَائِشَةُ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ يَمْنَعُكِ ذَلِكَ مِنْهَا ابْتَاعِي وَأَعْتِقِي فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَفَعَلَتْ وَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي النَّاسِ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَمَا بَالُ النَّاسِ يَشْتَرِطُونَ شُرُوطًا لَيْسَتْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَنِ اشْتَرَطَ شَرْطًا لَيْسَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ بَاطِلٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِائَةَ شَرْطٍ قَضَاءُ اللَّهِ أَحَقُّ وَشَرْطُ اللَّهِ أَوْثَقُ وَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Malik said, "It is not halal to marry a christian or jewish slave-girl because Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'Believing women who are muhsanat and women of those who were given the Book before you who are muhsanat', (sura 5 ayat 6) and they are free women from the Christians and Jews. Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'If you are not affluent enough to marry believing women who are muhsanat, take believing slave-girls whom your right hands own.' " (Sura 4 ayat 24) Malik said, "In our opinion, Allah made marriage to believing slave-girls halal, and He did not make halal marriage to christian and jewish slave-girls from the People of the Book." Malik said, "The christian and jewish slave-girl are halal for their master by right of possession, but intercourse with a magian slave-girl is not halal by the right of possession."

It was narrated that 'Aishah, the wife of the Prophet, said:
Three Sunan were established because of Barirah. One of those Sunan was that she was set free and was given the choice concerning her husband; the Messenger of Allah said: 'Al Wala' is to the one who set the slave free;' and the Messenger of Allah entered when some meat was being cooked in a pot, but bread and some condiments were brought to him. He said: 'Do I not see a pot in which some meat is being cooked?' They said: 'Yes, O Messenger of Allah, that is meat that was given in charity to Barirah and you do not eat (food given in) charity.' The Messenger of Allah said: 'It is charity for her and a gift for us.'
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا ابْنُ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَتْ كَانَ فِي بَرِيرَةَ ثَلاَثُ سُنَنٍ إِحْدَى السُّنَنِ أَنَّهَا أُعْتِقَتْ فَخُيِّرَتْ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَدَخَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَالْبُرْمَةُ تَفُورُ بِلَحْمٍ فَقُرِّبَ إِلَيْهِ خُبْزٌ وَأُدْمٌ مِنْ أُدْمِ الْبَيْتِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَلَمْ أَرَ بُرْمَةً فِيهَا لَحْمٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ لَحْمٌ تُصُدِّقَ بِهِ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ وَأَنْتَ لاَ تَأْكُلُ الصَّدَقَةَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ هُوَ عَلَيْهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَهُوَ لَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Suwayd ibn Muqarrin:
I slapped a freed slave of ours. My father called him and me and said: Take retaliation on him. We, the people of Banu Muqarrin, were seven during the time of the Prophet (saws),and we had only a female servant. A man of us slapped her. The Messenger of Allah (saws) said: Set her free. They said: We have no other servant than her. He said: She must serve them till they become well off. When they become well off, they should set her free.
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي سَلَمَةُ بْنُ كُهَيْلٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ سُوَيْدِ بْنِ مُقَرِّنٍ، قَالَ لَطَمْتُ مَوْلًى لَنَا فَدَعَاهُ أَبِي وَدَعَانِي فَقَالَ اقْتَصَّ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّا مَعْشَرَ بَنِي مُقَرِّنٍ كُنَّا سَبْعَةً عَلَى عَهْدِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلَيْسَ لَنَا إِلاَّ خَادِمٌ ‏.‏ فَلَطَمَهَا رَجُلٌ مِنَّا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَعْتِقُوهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَنَا خَادِمٌ غَيْرَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَلْتَخْدُمْهُمْ حَتَّى يَسْتَغْنُوا فَإِذَا اسْتَغْنَوْا فَلْيُعْتِقُوهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Hilal b. Yasaf said :
We were staying in the house of Suwaid b. Muqarrin. There was among us an old man who was hot-tempered. He had a slave-girl with him. He gave a slap on her face. I never saw Suwaid more angry than on that day. He said: there is no alternative for you except to free her. I was the seventh child in order of Muqarrin and we had only a female servant. The youngest of us gave a slap on her face. The prophet (May peace be upon him) commanded us to set her free.
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا فُضَيْلُ بْنُ عِيَاضٍ، عَنْ حُصَيْنٍ، عَنْ هِلاَلِ بْنِ يِسَافٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا نُزُولاً فِي دَارِ سُوَيْدِ بْنِ مُقَرِّنٍ وَفِينَا شَيْخٌ فِيهِ حِدَّةٌ وَمَعَهُ جَارِيَةٌ فَلَطَمَ وَجْهَهَا فَمَا رَأَيْتُ سُوَيْدًا أَشَدَّ غَضَبًا مِنْهُ ذَاكَ الْيَوْمَ قَالَ عَجَزَ عَلَيْكَ إِلاَّ حُرُّ وَجْهِهَا لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنَا سَابِعَ سَبْعَةٍ مِنْ وَلَدِ مُقَرِّنٍ وَمَا لَنَا إِلاَّ خَادِمٌ فَلَطَمَ أَصْغَرُنَا وَجْهَهَا فَأَمَرَنَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِعِتْقِهَا ‏.‏
It was narrated from'Aishah that Barirah came to 'Aishah asking her to help her with her contract of manumission.' Aishah said:
"Go back to your masters, and if they agree to let me pay off your contract of manumission, and let your loyalty be to me, then I will do it" Barirah told her masters about that, but they refused and said: "If she wants to seek reward (with Allah) by freeing you, let her do so, but your loyalty will be to us." She told the Messenger of Allah about that , and the Messenger of Allah said to her; "Buy her and set her free, and loyalty belongs to the one who set the slave free," Then the Messenger of Allah said: "What is the matter with people who stipulate conditions that are not in the Book of Allah? Whoever stipulates something that is not in the Book of Allah, it is not valid even if he stipulates one hundred conditions? The condition of Allah is more deserving of being followed and is more hinting."
أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّ بَرِيرَةَ جَاءَتْ عَائِشَةَ تَسْتَعِينُهَا فِي كِتَابَتِهَا شَيْئًا فَقَالَتْ لَهَا عَائِشَةُ ارْجِعِي إِلَى أَهْلِكِ فَإِنْ أَحَبُّوا أَنْ أَقْضِيَ عَنْكِ كِتَابَتَكِ وَيَكُونَ وَلاَؤُكِ لِي فَعَلْتُ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ بَرِيرَةُ لأَهْلِهَا فَأَبَوْا وَقَالُوا إِنْ شَاءَتْ أَنْ تَحْتَسِبَ عَلَيْكِ فَلْتَفْعَلْ وَيَكُونَ لَنَا وَلاَؤُكِ ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ ابْتَاعِي وَأَعْتِقِي فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَا بَالُ أَقْوَامٍ يَشْتَرِطُونَ شُرُوطًا لَيْسَتْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَمَنِ اشْتَرَطَ شَيْئًا لَيْسَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ وَإِنِ اشْتَرَطَ مِائَةَ شَرْطٍ وَشَرْطُ اللَّهِ أَحَقُّ وَأَوْثَقُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Humayd ibn Qays al-Makki that a man called Dhafif said that Ibn Abbas was asked about coitus interruptus. He called a slave-girl of his and said, "Tell them." She was embarrassed. He said, "It is alright, and I do it myself." Malik said, "A man does not practise coitus interruptus with a free woman unless she gives her permission. There is no harm in practising coitus interruptus with a slave-girl without her permission. Someone who has someone else's slave-girl as a wife, does not practise coitus interruptus with her unless her people give him permission."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْمَكِّيِّ، عَنْ رَجُلٍ، يُقَالُ لَهُ ذَفِيفٌ أَنَّهُ قَالَ سُئِلَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ عَنِ الْعَزْلِ فَدَعَا جَارِيَةً لَهُ فَقَالَ أَخْبِرِيهِمْ ‏.‏ فَكَأَنَّهَا اسْتَحْيَتْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ هُوَ ذَلِكَ أَمَّا أَنَا فَأَفْعَلُهُ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي أَنَّهُ يَعْزِلُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ يَعْزِلُ الرَّجُلُ عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ الْحُرَّةِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهَا وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يَعْزِلَ عَنْ أَمَتِهِ بِغَيْرِ إِذْنِهَا وَمَنْ كَانَتْ تَحْتَهُ أَمَةُ قَوْمٍ فَلاَ يَعْزِلُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِمْ ‏.‏
Anas said “Captives were gathered at Khaibar. Dihyah came out and said “Apostle of Allaah(saws) give me a slave girl from the captives.” He said “Go and take a slave girl. He took Safiyyah daughter of Huyayy. A man then came to the Prophet (saws) and said “You gave Safiyyah daughter of Huyayy, chief lady of Quraizah and Al Nadir to Dihyah? This is according to the version of Ya’qub. Then the agreed version goes “she is worthy of you.” He said “call him along with her. When the Prophet (saws) looked at her, he said to him “take another slave girl from the captives. The Prophet (saws) then set her free and married her.

حَدَّثَنَا دَاوُدُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، - الْمَعْنَى - قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ عُلَيَّةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ صُهَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ جُمِعَ السَّبْىُ - يَعْنِي بِخَيْبَرَ - فَجَاءَ دِحْيَةُ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَعْطِنِي جَارِيَةً مِنَ السَّبْىِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ اذْهَبْ فَخُذْ جَارِيَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَخَذَ صَفِيَّةَ بِنْتَ حُيَىٍّ فَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ أَعْطَيْتَ دِحْيَةَ - قَالَ يَعْقُوبُ - صَفِيَّةَ بِنْتَ حُيَىٍّ سَيِّدَةَ قُرَيْظَةَ وَالنَّضِيرِ - ثُمَّ اتَّفَقَا - مَا تَصْلُحُ إِلاَّ لَكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ ادْعُوهُ بِهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لَهُ ‏"‏ خُذْ جَارِيَةً مِنَ السَّبْىِ غَيْرَهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَإِنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَعْتَقَهَا وَتَزَوَّجَهَا ‏.‏
Jabir bin ·Abdullah (RAA) narrated that A man from the Ansar declared that his slave lad would be free after his death (would be Mudabbar), yet he had no other property. When the Prophet heard of that he said, “Who will buy him from me?” And Nu'aim bin 'Abdullah bought him for eight hundred Dirhams. Agreed upon. In a narration by Al-Bukhari:
“The man became needy,’ (so the Prophet took the slave and said...).’ A version by An-Nasa’i says, “The man had a debt, so the Prophet sold the slave for eight hundred Dirhams and gave him the money and said, “Pay off your debt.”
عَنْ جَابِرٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { أَنَّ رَجُلًا مِنْ اَلْأَنْصَارِ أَعْتَقَ غُلَامًا لَهُ عَنْ دُبُرٍ, لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُ, فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-.‏ فَقَالَ: "مَنْ يَشْتَرِيهِ مِنِّي?" فَاشْتَرَاهُ نُعَيْمُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اَللَّهِ بِثَمَانِمَائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْه ِ 1‏ .‏ وَفِي لَفْظٍ لِلْبُخَارِيِّ: فَاحْتَاج َ 2‏ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لِلنَّسَائِيِّ: { وَكَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ, فَبَاعَهُ بِثَمَانِمَائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ, فَأَعْطَاهُ وَقَالَ: " اِقْضِ دَيْنَكَ" } 3‏ .‏
Malik related to me that he heard that Abu Salama ibn Abd ar- Rahman and Sulayman ibn Yasar were both asked, "Does one pronounce judgement on the basis of an oath with one witness?" They both said, "Yes." Malik said, "The precedent of the sunna in judging by an oath with one witness is that if the plaintiff takes an oath with his witness, he is confirmed in his right. If he draws back and refuses to take an oath, the defendant is made to take an oath. If he takes an oath, the claim against him is dropped. If he refuses to take an oath, the claim is confirmed against him." Malik said, "This procedure pertains to property cases in particular. It does not occur in any of the hadd-punishments, nor in marriage, divorce, freeing slaves, theft or slander. If some one says, 'Freeing slaves comes under property,' he has erred. It is not as he said. Had it been as he said, a slave could take an oath with one witness, if he could find one, that his master had freed him. "However, when a slave lays claim to a piece of property, he can take an oath with one witness and demand his right as the freeman demands his right." Malik said, "The sunna with us is that when a slave brings somebody who witnesses that he has been set free, his master is made to take an oath that he has not freed him, and the slave's claim is dropped." Malik said, "The sunna about divorce is also like that with us. When a woman brings somebody who witnesses that her husband has divorced her, the husband is made to take an oath that he has not divorced her. If he takes the oath, the divorce does not proceed . " Malik said, "There is only one sunna of bringing a witness in cases of divorce and freeing a slave. The right to make an oath only belongs to the husband of the woman, and the master of the slave. Freeing is a hadd matter, and the testimony of women is not permitted in it because when a slave is freed, his inviolability is affirmed and the hadd punishments are applied for and against him. If he commits fornication and he is a muhsan, he is stoned. If he kills a slave, he is killed for it. Inheritance is established for him, between him and whoever inherits from him. If somebody disputes this, arguing that if a man frees his slave and then a man comes to demand from the master of the slave payment of a debt, and a man and two women testify to his right, that establishes the right against the master of the slave so that his freeing him is cancelled if he only has the slave as property, inferring by this case that the testimony of women is permitted in cases of setting free. The case is not as he suggests (i.e. it is a case of property not freeing). It is like a man who frees his slave, and then the claimant of a debt comes to the master and takes an oath with one witness, demanding his right. By that, the freeing of the slave would be cancelled. Or else a man comes who has frequent dealings and transactions with the master of the slave. He claims that he is owed money by the master of the slave. Someone says to the master of the slave, 'Take an oath that you don't owe what he claims'. If he draws back and refuses to take an oath, the one making the claim takes an oath and his right against the master of the slave is confirmed. That would cancel the freeing of the slave if it is confirmed that property is owed by the master." Malik said, "It is the same case with a man who marries a slave-girl and then the master of the slave-girl comes to the man who has married her and claims, 'You and so-and-so have bought my slave-girl from me for such an amount of dinars. The husband of the slave-girl denies that. The master of the slave-girl brings a man and two women and they testify to what he has said. The sale is confirmed and his claim is considered true. So the slave-girl is haram for her husband and they have to separate, even though the testimony of women is not accepted in divorce." Malik said, "It is also the same case with a man who accuses a free man, so the hadd falls on him. A man and two women come and testify that the one accused is a slave. That would remove the hadd from the accused after it had befallen him, even though the testimony of women is not accepted in accusations involving hadd punishments." Malik said, "Another similar case in which judgement appears to go against the precedent of the sunna is that two women testify that a child is born alive and so it is necessary for him to inherit if a situation arises where he is entitled to inherit, and the child's property goes to those who inherit from him, if he dies, and it is not necessary that the two women witnesses should be accompanied by a man or an oath even though it may involve vast properties of gold, silver, live-stock, gardens and slaves and other properties. However, had two women testified to one dirham or more or less than that in a property case, their testimony would not affect anything and would not be permitted unless there was a witness or an oath with them." Malik said, "There are people who say that an oath is not acceptable with only one witness and they argue by the word of Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, and His word is the Truth, 'And call in to witness two witnesses, men; or if the two be not men, then one man and two women, such witnesses as you approve of.' (Sura 2 ayat 282). Such people argue that if he does not bring one man and two women, he has no claim and he is not allowed to take an oath with one witness." Malik said, "Part of the proof against those who argue this, is to reply to them, 'Do you think that if a man claimed property from a man, the one claimed from would not swear that the claim was false?' If he swears, the claim against him is dropped. If he refuses to take an oath, the claimant is made to take an oath that his claim is true, and his right against his companion is established. There is no dispute about this with any of the people nor in any country. By what does he take this? In what place in the Book of Allah does he find it? So if he confirms this, let him confirm the oath with one witness, even if it is not in the Book of Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic! It is enough that this is the precedent of the sunna. However, man wants to recognise the proper course of action and the location of the proof. In this there is a clarification for what is obscure about that, if Allah ta'ala wills."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سَلَمَةَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، سُئِلاَ هَلْ يُقْضَى بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ فَقَالاَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ فِي الْقَضَاءِ بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ الْوَاحِدِ يَحْلِفُ صَاحِبُ الْحَقِّ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ وَيَسْتَحِقُّ حَقَّهُ فَإِنْ نَكَلَ وَأَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ أُحْلِفَ الْمَطْلُوبُ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ سَقَطَ عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ وَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ ثَبَتَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ لِصَاحِبِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَمْوَالِ خَاصَّةً وَلاَ يَقَعُ ذَلِكَ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنَ الْحُدُودِ وَلاَ فِي نِكَاحٍ وَلاَ فِي طَلاَقٍ وَلاَ فِي عَتَاقَةٍ وَلاَ فِي سَرِقَةٍ وَلاَ فِي فِرْيَةٍ فَإِنْ قَالَ قَائِلٌ فَإِنَّ الْعَتَاقَةَ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ ‏.‏ فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا قَالَ لَحَلَفَ الْعَبْدُ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ أَنَّ سَيِّدَهُ أَعْتَقَهُ وَأَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ عَلَى مَالٍ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ ادَّعَاهُ حَلَفَ مَعَ شَاهِدِهِ وَاسْتَحَقَّ حَقَّهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُ الْحُرُّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَالسُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَاءَ بِشَاهِدٍ عَلَى عَتَاقَتِهِ اسْتُحْلِفَ سَيِّدُهُ مَا أَعْتَقَهُ وَبَطَلَ ذَلِكَ عَنْهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ السُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا أَيْضًا فِي الطَّلاَقِ إِذَا جَاءَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ ...
Narrated Ibn `Abbas:
The law of Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment) was prescribed for the children of Israel, but the Diya (i.e. blood money was not ordained for them). So Allah said to this Nation (i.e. Muslims): "O you who believe! The law of Al-Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in cases of murder: The free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the relatives (or one of them) of the killed (person) forgive their brother (i.e. the killers something of Qisas (i.e. not to kill the killer by accepting blood money in the case of intentional murder)----then the relatives (of the killed person) should demand blood-money in a reasonable manner and the killer must pay with handsome gratitude. This is an allevitation and a Mercy from your Lord, (in comparison to what was prescribed for the nations before you). So after this, whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. to kill the killer after taking the blood-money) shall have a painful torment." (2.178)
حَدَّثَنَا الْحُمَيْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرٌو، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ مُجَاهِدًا، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَقُولُ كَانَ فِي بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْقِصَاصُ، وَلَمْ تَكُنْ فِيهِمُ الدِّيَةُ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لِهَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ ‏{‏كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالأُنْثَى بِالأُنْثَى فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌ‏}‏ فَالْعَفْوُ أَنْ يَقْبَلَ الدِّيَةَ فِي الْعَمْدِ ‏{‏فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ‏}‏ يَتَّبِعُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيُؤَدِّي بِإِحْسَانٍ، ‏{‏ذَلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ‏}‏ وَرَحْمَةٌ مِمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَى مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ‏.‏ ‏{‏فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ‏}‏ قَتَلَ بَعْدَ قَبُولِ الدِّيَةِ‏.‏
It has been narrated that Maimuna bint Al-Harith (May Allah be pleased with her) had set free a slave-girl without the Prophet's permission. When her turn came (the Prophet (PBUH) used to visit his wives in turns), she made mention of that to him saying, "Did you know I have set slave-girl free?" He said, "Have you, indeed?" She replied, "Yes". He (PBUH) then remarked, "Had you given her to your maternal uncles, you would have your reward increased".[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

- وعن أم المؤمنين ميمونة بنت الحارث رضي الله عنها أنها أعتقت وليدة ولم تستأذن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فلما كان يومها الذي يدور عليها فيه، قالت‏:‏ أشعرت يا رسول الله أني أعتقت وليدتي‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏أو فعلت‏؟‏‏"‏ قالت‏:‏ نعم‏.‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏أما إنك لو أعطيتها أخوالك كان أعظم لأجرك‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏متفق عليه‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Abbas said:
"There was Qisas among the Children of Israel, but Diyah was unknown among them. Then Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, revealed: "Al-Qisas (the law of equality in punishment) is prescribed for your in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female." Up to His saying: "But if the killer is forgiven by the brother 9or the relatives) of the killed against blood money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood money to the heir should be made in fairness."[2] Forgiveness means accepting the Diyah in the case of deliberate killing. Adhering to it in fairness means asking him to pay the Diyah in a fair manner, and payment in fairness means giving the Diyah in a fair manner. This is and alleviation and a mercy from you Lord,[1] means: This is easier thanthat which was prescribed for those who came before you, which was Qisas and not Diyah."
قَالَ الْحَارِثُ بْنُ مِسْكِينٍ قِرَاءَةً عَلَيْهِ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ كَانَ فِي بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْقِصَاصُ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ فِيهِمُ الدِّيَةُ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ‏{‏ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالأُنْثَى بِالأُنْثَى ‏}‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏{‏ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ‏}‏ فَالْعَفْوُ أَنْ يَقْبَلَ الدِّيَةَ فِي الْعَمْدِ وَاتِّبَاعٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ يَقُولُ يَتَّبِعُ هَذَا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ وَيُؤَدِّي هَذَا بِإِحْسَانٍ ‏{‏ ذَلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ‏}‏ مِمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَى مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ الْقِصَاصُ لَيْسَ الدِّيَةَ ‏.‏
Abu 'Umar Zadhan said, "We were with Ibn 'Umar when he summoned a slave of his whom he had beaten and he uncovered his back. 'Does it hurt?' he asked. 'No,' he replied. Then he set him free. He picked up a stick from the ground and then said, 'I do not have a reward (for him) worth as much as this stick.' I asked, 'Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman, why do you say this?' He replied, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The expiation of someone who beats a slave more than he deserves or slaps his face is that he must set him free."'"

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا فِرَاسٌ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ زَاذَانَ أَبِي عُمَرَ قَالَ‏:‏ كُنَّا عِنْدَ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، فَدَعَا بِغُلاَمٍ لَهُ كَانَ ضَرَبَهُ فَكَشَفَ عَنْ ظَهْرِهِ فَقَالَ‏:‏ أَيُوجِعُكَ‏؟‏ قَالَ‏:‏ لاَ‏.‏ فَأَعْتَقَهُ، ثُمَّ رَفَعَ عُودًا مِنَ الأَرْضِ فَقَالَ‏:‏ مَالِي فِيهِ مِنَ الأَجْرِ مَا يَزِنُ هَذَا الْعُودَ، فَقُلْتُ‏:‏ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، لِمَ تَقُولُ هَذَا‏؟‏ قَالَ‏:‏ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ أَوْ قَالَ‏:‏ مَنْ ضَرَبَ مَمْلُوكَهُ حَدًّا لَمْ يَأْتِهِ، أَوْ لَطَمَ وَجْهَهُ، فَكَفَّارَتُهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهُ‏.‏
Malik related to me that he heard Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman and others mention that al-Furafisa ibn Umar al-Hanafi had a mukatab who offered to pay him all of his kitaba that he owed. Al-Furafisa refused to accept it and the mukatab went to Marwan ibn al-Hakam who was the amir of Madina and brought up the matter. Marwan summoned al-Furafisa and told him to accept. He refused. Marwan then ordered that the payment be taken from the mukatab and placed in the treasury. He said to the mukatab "Go, you are free." When al-Furafisa saw that, he took the money. Malik said, "What is done among us when a mukatab pays all the instalments he owes before their term, is that it is permitted to him. The master cannot refuse him that. That is because payment removes every condition from the mukatab as well as service and travel. The setting free of a man is not complete while he has any remaining slavery, and neither would his inviolability as a free man be complete and his testimony permitted and inheritance obliged and such things in that situation. His master must not make any stipulation of service on him after he has been set free." Malik said that it was permitted for a mukatab who became extremely ill and wanted to pay his master all his instalments because his heirs who were free would then inherit from him and he had no children with him in his kitaba, to do so, because by that he completed his inviolability as a free man, his testimony was permitted, and his admission of what he owed of debts to people was permitted. His bequest was permitted as well. His master could not refuse him that by saying, "He is escaping from me with his property."

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَبِيعَةَ بْنَ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَغَيْرَهُ، يَذْكُرُونَ أَنَّ مَكَاتَبًا، كَانَ لِلْفُرَافِصَةِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ الْحَنَفِيِّ وَأَنَّهُ عَرَضَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعَ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ فَأَبَى الْفُرَافِصَةُ فَأَتَى الْمُكَاتَبُ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ وَهُوَ أَمِيرُ الْمَدِينَةِ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَدَعَا مَرْوَانُ الْفُرَافِصَةَ فَقَالَ لَهُ ذَلِكَ فَأَبَى فَأَمَرَ مَرْوَانُ بِذَلِكَ الْمَالِ أَنْ يُقْبَضَ مِنَ الْمُكَاتَبِ فَيُوضَعَ فِي بَيْتِ الْمَالِ وَقَالَ لِلْمُكَاتَبِ اذْهَبْ فَقَدْ عَتَقْتَ ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا رَأَى ذَلِكَ الْفُرَافِصَةُ قَبَضَ الْمَالَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْمُكَاتَبَ إِذَا أَدَّى جَمِيعَ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ نُجُومِهِ قَبْلَ مَحِلِّهَا جَازَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِسَيِّدِهِ أَنْ يَأْبَى ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ يَضَعُ عَنِ الْمُكَاتَبِ بِذَلِكَ كُلَّ شَرْطٍ أَوْ خِدْمَةٍ أَوْ سَفَرٍ لأَنَّهُ لاَ تَتِمُّ عَتَاقَةُ رَجُلٍ وَعَلَيْهِ بَقِيَّةٌ مِنْ رِقٍّ وَلاَ تَتِمُّ حُرْمَتُهُ وَلاَ تَجُوزُ شَهَادَتُهُ وَلاَ يَجِبُ مِيرَاثُهُ وَلاَ أَشْبَاهُ هَذَا مِنْ أَمْرِهِ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لِسَيِّدِهِ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطَ عَلَيْهِ خِدْمَةً بَعْدَ عَتَاقَتِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي مُكَاتَبٍ مَرِضَ مَرَضًا شَدِيدًا فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ نُجُومَهُ كُلَّهَا إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ لأَنْ يَرِثَهُ وَرَثَةٌ لَهُ أَحْرَارٌ ...
Malik spoke to me about a man who wrote a kitaba for his slave for gold or silver and stipulated against him in his kitaba a journey, service, sacrifice or similar, which he specified by its name, and then the mukatab was able to pay all his instalments before the end of the term. He said, "If he pays all his instalments and he is set free and his inviolability as a free man is complete, but he still has this condition to fulfil, the condition is examined, and whatever involves his person in it, like service or a journey etc., is removed from him and his master has nothing in it. Whatever there is of sacrifice, clothing, or anything that he must pay, that is in the position of dinars and dirhams, and is valued and he pays it along with his instalments, and he is not free until he has paid that along with his instalments." Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things among us about which there is no dispute, is that a mukatab is in the same position as a slave whom his master will free after a service of ten years. If the master who will free him dies before ten years, what remains of his service goes to his heirs and his wala' goes to the one who contracted to free him and to his male children or paternal relations." Malik spoke about a man who stipulated against his mukatab that he could not travel, marry, or leave his land without his permission, and that if he did so without his permission it was in his power to cancel the kitaba. He said, "If the mukatab does any of these things it is not in the man's power to cancel the kitaba. Let the master put that before the Sultan. The mukatab, however, should not marry, travel, or leave the land of his master without his permission, whether or not he stipulates that. That is because the man may write a kitaba for his slave for 100 dinars and the slave may have 1000 dinars or more than that. He goes off and marries a woman and pays her bride-price which sweeps away his money and then he cannot pay. He reverts to his master as a slave who has no property. Or else he may travel and his instalments fall due while he is away. He cannot do that and kitaba is not to be based on that. That is in the hand of his master. If he wishes, he gives him permission in that. If he wishes, he refuses it."

Yahya related to me from Malik that it reached him that a slave of Abdullah ibn Umar escaped and one of his horses wandered off, and the idol worshippers seized them. Then the Muslims recaptured them, and they were returned to Abdullah ibn Umar, before the division of the spoils took place. I heard Malik say about muslim property that had been seized by the enemy, "If it is noticed before the distribution, then it is returned to itsowner. Whatever has already been distributed is not returned to anyone." Malik, when asked about a man whose young male slave was taken by the idol worshippers and then the Muslims re-captured him, said, "The owner is more entitled to him without having to pay his price or value or having to incur any loss before the distribution takes place. If the distribution has already taken place then I think that the slave belongs to his master for his price if the master wants him back." Regarding an umm walad of a Muslim man who has been taken by the idol worshippers and then recaptured by the Muslims and allotted in the distribution of spoils and then recognised by her master after the distribution, Malik said, "She is not to be enslaved. I think that the Imam should pay a ransom for her for her master. If he does not do it, then her master must pay a ransom for her and not leave her. I do not think that she should be made a slave by whoever takes her and intercourse with her is not halal. She is in the position of a free woman because her master would be required to pay compensation if she injured somebody and so she is in the same position (as a wife). He must not leave the mother of his son to be enslaved nor may intercourse with her be made halal." Malik was asked about a man who went to enemy territory to pay ransom or to trade, and he bought a free man or a slave, or they were given to him. He said, "As for the free man, the price he buys him for is a debt against the man and he is not made a slave. If the captive is given to him freely, he is free and owes nothing unless the man gave something in recompense for him. That is a debt against the free man, the same as if a ransom had been paid for him. As for a slave, his former master can choose to take him back and pay his price to the man who bought him or he can choose to leave him, as he wishes. If he was given to the man, the former master is more entitled to him, and he owes nothing for him unless the man gave something for him in recompense. Whatever he gave for him is a loss against the master if he wants him back."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدًا، لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ أَبَقَ وَأَنَّ فَرَسًا لَهُ عَارَ فَأَصَابَهُمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ ثُمَّ غَنِمَهُمَا الْمُسْلِمُونَ فَرُدَّا عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ وَذَلِكَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمَا الْمَقَاسِمُ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Hilal ibn Usama from Ata ibn Yasar that Umar ibn al-Hakam said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, a slave girl of mine was tending my sheep. I came to her and one of the sheep was lost. I asked her about it and she said that a wolf had eaten it, so I became angry and I am one of the children of Adam, so I struck her on the face. As it happens, I have to set a slave free, shall I free her?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, questioned her, 'Where is Allah?' She said, 'In heaven.' He said, 'Who am I?' She said, 'You are the Messenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Free her.' "

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هِلاَلِ بْنِ أُسَامَةَ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ جَارِيَةً لِي كَانَتْ تَرْعَى غَنَمًا لِي فَجِئْتُهَا وَقَدْ فُقِدَتْ شَاةٌ مِنَ الْغَنَمِ فَسَأَلْتُهَا عَنْهَا فَقَالَتْ أَكَلَهَا الذِّئْبُ فَأَسِفْتُ عَلَيْهَا وَكُنْتُ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ فَلَطَمْتُ وَجْهَهَا وَعَلَىَّ رَقَبَةٌ أَفَأُعْتِقُهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَيْنَ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ فِي السَّمَاءِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ أَنَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ أَنْتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَعْتِقْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Umar ibn Husayn, the mawla of A'isha bint Qudama, that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan imposed retaliation against a man who killed a mawla with a stick and so the mawla's patron killed the man with a stick. Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things in our community about which there is no dispute is that when a man strikes another man with a stick or hits him with a rock or intentionally strikes him causing his death, that is an intentional injury and there is retaliation for it." Malik said, "Intentional murder with us is that a man intentionally goes to a man and strikes him until his life goes. Part of intentional injury also is that a man strikes a man in a quarrel between them. He leaves him while he is alive, and he bleeds to death and so dies. There is retaliation for that." Malik said, "What is done in our community is that a group of free men are killed for the intentional murder of one free man, and a group of women for one woman, and a group of slaves for one slave."

وَحَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، مَوْلَى عَائِشَةَ بِنْتِ قُدَامَةَ أَنَّ عَبْدَ الْمَلِكِ بْنَ مَرْوَانَ، أَقَادَ وَلِيَّ رَجُلٍ مِنْ رَجُلٍ قَتَلَهُ بِعَصًا فَقَتَلَهُ وَلِيُّهُ بِعَصًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا ضَرَبَ الرَّجُلَ بِعَصًا أَوْ رَمَاهُ بِحَجَرٍ أَوْ ضَرَبَهُ عَمْدًا فَمَاتَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْعَمْدُ وَفِيهِ الْقِصَاصُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَقَتْلُ الْعَمْدِ عِنْدَنَا أَنْ يَعْمِدَ الرَّجُلُ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ فَيَضْرِبَهُ حَتَّى تَفِيظَ نَفْسُهُ وَمِنَ الْعَمْدِ أَيْضًا أَنْ يَضْرِبَ الرَّجُلُ الرَّجُلَ فِي النَّائِرَةِ تَكُونُ بَيْنَهُمَا ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ عَنْهُ وَهُوَ حَىٌّ فَيُنْزَى فِي ضَرْبِهِ فَيَمُوتُ فَتَكُونُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْقَسَامَةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ يُقْتَلُ فِي الْعَمْدِ الرِّجَالُ الأَحْرَارُ بِالرَّجُلِ الْحُرِّ الْوَاحِدِ وَالنِّسَاءُ بِالْمَرْأَةِ كَذَلِكَ وَالْعَبِيدُ بِالْعَبْدِ كَذَلِكَ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan gave a judgment that the rapist had to pay the raped woman her bride- price. Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about the man who rapes a woman, virgin or non-virgin, if she is free, is that he must pay the bride-price of the like of her. If she is a slave, he must pay what he has diminished of her worth. The hadd-punishment in such cases is applied to the rapist, and there is no punishment applied to the raped woman. If the rapist is a slave, that is against his master unless he wishes to surrender him."

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ الْمَلِكِ بْنَ مَرْوَانَ، قَضَى فِي امْرَأَةٍ أُصِيبَتْ مُسْتَكْرَهَةً بِصَدَاقِهَا عَلَى مَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى سَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الرَّجُلِ يَغْتَصِبُ الْمَرْأَةَ بِكْرًا كَانَتْ أَوْ ثَيِّبًا إِنَّهَا إِنْ كَانَتْ حُرَّةً فَعَلَيْهِ صَدَاقُ مِثْلِهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَمَةً فَعَلَيْهِ مَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ثَمَنِهَا وَالْعُقُوبَةُ فِي ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْمُغْتَصِبِ وَلاَ عُقُوبَةَ عَلَى الْمُغْتَصَبَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمُغْتَصِبُ عَبْدًا فَذَلِكَ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءَ أَنْ يُسَلِّمَهُ ‏.‏
Hakim b. Hizam reported to 'Urwa b. Zubair that he said to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him):
Messenger of Allah, do you think if there is any reward (of the Lord with me on the Day of Resurrection) for the deeds of religious purification that I performed in the state of ignorance, such as charity, freeing a slave, cementing of blood-relations? Upon this he (the Apostle of Allah) said to him: You have accepted Islam with all the previous virtues that you had practised.
وَحَدَّثَنَا حَسَنٌ الْحُلْوَانِيُّ، وَعَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، - قَالَ الْحُلْوَانِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا وَقَالَ عَبْدٌ، حَدَّثَنِي - يَعْقُوبُ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ - حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، عَنْ صَالِحٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّ حَكِيمَ بْنَ حِزَامٍ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّهُ، قَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَىْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ أُمُورًا كُنْتُ أَتَحَنَّثُ بِهَا فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ عَتَاقَةٍ أَوْ صِلَةِ رَحِمٍ أَفِيهَا أَجْرٌ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَسْلَمْتَ عَلَى مَا أَسْلَفْتَ مِنْ خَيْرٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Maimuna bint Harith reported that she set free a slave-girl during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and she made a mention of that to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he said:
Had you gives her to your maternal uncles, you would have a greater reward.
حَدَّثَنِي هَارُونُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الأَيْلِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي عَمْرٌو، عَنْ بُكَيْرٍ، عَنْ كُرَيْبٍ، عَنْ مَيْمُونَةَ بِنْتِ الْحَارِثِ، أَنَّهَا أَعْتَقَتْ وَلِيدَةً فِي زَمَانِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ لَوْ أَعْطَيْتِهَا أَخْوَالَكِ كَانَ أَعْظَمَ لأَجْرِكِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Ibn Umar reported that 'A'isha decided to buy a slave-girl and then set her free, but her masters said:
We are prepared to sell her to you on the condition that her right of inheritance would vest with you. She (Hadrat A'isha) made a mention of that to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) whereupon he said: This should not stand in your way. The right of inheritance vests in one who emancipates.
وَحَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى، قَالَ قَرَأْتُ عَلَى مَالِكٍ عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ، جَارِيَةً تُعْتِقُهَا فَقَالَ أَهْلُهَا نَبِيعُكِهَا عَلَى أَنَّ وَلاَءَهَا لَنَا ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَمْنَعُكِ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏‏.‏
'Imran b. Husain reported that a person who had no other property emancipated six slaves of his at the time of his death. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) called for them and divided them into three sections, cast lots amongst them, and set two free and kept four in slavery; and he (the Holy Prophet) spoke severely of him.

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ السَّعْدِيُّ، وَأَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ وَزُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ عُلَيَّةَ - عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الْمُهَلَّبِ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ، بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ ‏.‏ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، أَعْتَقَ سِتَّةَ مَمْلُوكِينَ لَهُ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُمْ فَدَعَا بِهِمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَجَزَّأَهُمْ أَثْلاَثًا ثُمَّ أَقْرَعَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَأَعْتَقَ اثْنَيْنِ وَأَرَقَّ أَرْبَعَةً وَقَالَ لَهُ قَوْلاً شَدِيدًا ‏.‏
Narrated `Abdullah bin `Umar:
Aisha wanted to buy Buraira and he (the Prophet ) went out for the prayer. When he returned, she told him that they (her masters) refused to sell her except on the condition that her Wala' would go to them. The Prophet replied, 'The Wala' would go to him who manumits.' " Hammam asked Nafi` whether her (Buraira's) husband was a free man or a slave. He replied that he did not know.
حَدَّثَنَا حَسَّانُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبَّادٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هَمَّامٌ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ نَافِعًا، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ سَاوَمَتْ بَرِيرَةَ فَخَرَجَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ قَالَتْ إِنَّهُمْ أَبَوْا أَنْ يَبِيعُوهَا، إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطُوا الْوَلاَءَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏‏.‏ قُلْتُ لِنَافِعٍ حُرًّا كَانَ زَوْجُهَا أَوْ عَبْدًا فَقَالَ مَا يُدْرِينِي
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "Allah says, 'I will be against three persons on the Day of Resurrection: -1. One who makes a covenant in My Name, but he proves treacherous. -2. One who sells a free person (as a slave) and eats the price, -3. And one who employs a laborer and gets the full work done by him but does not pay him his wages.' "
حَدَّثَنِي بِشْرُ بْنُ مَرْحُومٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سُلَيْمٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أُمَيَّةَ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ قَالَ اللَّهُ ثَلاَثَةٌ أَنَا خَصْمُهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، رَجُلٌ أَعْطَى بِي ثُمَّ غَدَرَ، وَرَجُلٌ بَاعَ حُرًّا فَأَكَلَ ثَمَنَهُ، وَرَجُلٌ اسْتَأْجَرَ أَجِيرًا فَاسْتَوْفَى مِنْهُ، وَلَمْ يُعْطِ أَجْرَهُ ‏"‏‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "If someone breaks an oath which he has stressed, he has to free a slave, or clothe ten poor people. If someone breaks an oath, but has not stressed it, he only has to feed ten poor people and each poor person is fed a mudd of wheat. Some one who does not have the means for that, should fast for three days."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ مَنْ حَلَفَ بِيَمِينٍ فَوَكَّدَهَا ثُمَّ حَنِثَ فَعَلَيْهِ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ أَوْ كِسْوَةُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ وَمَنْ حَلَفَ بِيَمِينٍ فَلَمْ يُؤَكِّدْهَا ثُمَّ حَنِثَ فَعَلَيْهِ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ مُدٌّ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Umar were asked about a man who had a free woman as a wife and then wanted to marry a slave-girl. They disapproved that he should combine the two of them.

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، وَعَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرُ، سُئِلاَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، كَانَتْ تَحْتَهُ امْرَأَةٌ حُرَّةٌ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْكِحَ عَلَيْهَا أَمَةً فَكَرِهَا أَنْ يَجْمَعَ بَيْنَهُمَا ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that he heard a man ask Urwa ibn az-Zubayr about a man who said to his wife, "Any woman I marry along with you as long as you live will be like my mother's back to me." Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said, "The freeing of slaves is enough to release him from that."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَجُلاً، يَسْأَلُ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، قَالَ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ كُلُّ امْرَأَةٍ أَنْكِحُهَا عَلَيْكِ مَا عِشْتِ فَهِيَ عَلَىَّ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّي ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ يُجْزِئُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father from A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked what was the most excellent kind of slave to free. The Messenger of Allah, May Allah bless him and grant him peace, answered, "The most expensive and the most valuable to his master."

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سُئِلَ عَنِ الرِّقَابِ أَيُّهَا أَفْضَلُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَغْلاَهَا ثَمَنًا وَأَنْفَسُهَا عِنْدَ أَهْلِهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Thawban, the freed slave of Allah's Messenger, narrated that :
Allah's Messenger said: "When Allah's Messenger wanted to turn from his Salat, he would seek forgiveness from Allah three times, then say: (Allahumma Antas-Salam, wa minkas-salam, tabarakta ya dhal-jalali wal-Ikram) 'O Allah! You are the One free of defects and perfection is from You. Blessed are You, O Possesor of Majesty and Honor.'"
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُوسَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، أَخْبَرَنَا الأَوْزَاعِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي شَدَّادٌ أَبُو عَمَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو أَسْمَاءَ الرَّحَبِيُّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي ثَوْبَانُ، مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْصَرِفَ مِنْ صَلاَتِهِ اسْتَغْفَرَ اللَّهَ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏ "‏ اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَأَبُو عَمَّارٍ اسْمُهُ شَدَّادُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏
Abu Ali Suwaid bin Muqarrin (May Allah be pleased with him) said:
I was the seventh child of Banu Muqarrin and we had only one slave-girl. When the youngest of us once happened to slap her (on the face) the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) ordered us to set her free.[Muslim].
- وعن أبي علي سويد بن مقرن رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ لقد رأيتني سابع سبعة من بني مقرن ما لنا خادم إلا واحدة لطمها أصغرنا فأمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن نعتقها‏.‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه مسلم‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏ ورواية‏:‏ ‏ "‏سابع إخوة لي‏"‏‏.‏
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Allah, the Exalted, says: 'I will contend on the Day of Resurrection against three (types of) people: One who makes a covenant in My Name and then breaks it; one who sells a free man as a slave and devours his price; and one who hires a workman and having taken full work from him, does not pay him his wages."'[Al- Bukhari].
- وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ ‏ "‏ قال الله تعالى‏:‏ ثلاثة أنا خصمهم يوم القيامة ‏:‏ رجل أعطى بي ثم غدر، ورجل باع حرًا فأكل ثمنه، ورجل استأجر أجيرًا، فاستوفى منه، ولم يعطه أجره‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه البخاري‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏
Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
I asked the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), "Which deed is most excellent?" He replied, "Faith in Allah and Jihad in His path." I then asked, "Which slaves are most excellent (to set free)?" He replied, "Those who are held in high esteem by their people and whose value is higher."[Al- Bukhari and Muslim].
- وعن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ قلت يا رسول الله أي الأعمال أفضل‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏الإيمان بالله، والجهاد في سبيل الله‏"‏ قلت‏:‏ أي الرقاب أفضل‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏أنفسها عند أهلها وأكثرها ثمنًا” ‏(‏‏(‏متفق عليه‏)‏‏)‏
Thawban, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah (SAW), narrated that:
When he finished the prayer, the Messenger of Allah (SAW) would pray for forgiveness three times and say: 'Allahumma anta asalam, wa minka as-salam tabarakta ya dhal-jalali wal-ikram (O Allah, You are the source of eace (or the One free from all faults) and from You comes peace, blessed are You, O Possessor of Majesty and Honor)."
أَخْبَرَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ، عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الأَوْزَاعِيِّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي شَدَّادٌ أَبُو عَمَّارٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا أَسْمَاءَ الرَّحَبِيَّ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّهُ، سَمِعَ ثَوْبَانَ، مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُحَدِّثُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا انْصَرَفَ مِنْ صَلاَتِهِ اسْتَغْفَرَ ثَلاَثًا وَقَالَ ‏ "‏ اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Al-Hasan that :
Ibn 'Abbas gave a Khutbah in Al-Basrah and said: "Pay the zakah of your fasting." The people started looking at one another. He said: "Whoever there is here from the people of Al-Madinah, get up and teach your brothers, for they do not know that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) enjoined sadaqat al-fitr on the young and the old, the free and the slave, the male and the female; half a sa' of wheat or a sa' of dried dates or barley.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ هَارُونَ - قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا حُمَيْدٌ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، خَطَبَ بِالْبَصْرَةِ فَقَالَ أَدُّوا زَكَاةَ صَوْمِكُمْ فَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ يَنْظُرُ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ فَقَالَ مَنْ هَا هُنَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ قُومُوا إِلَى إِخْوَانِكُمْ فَعَلِّمُوهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ عَلَى الصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ وَالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدِ وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى نِصْفَ صَاعٍ مِنْ بُرٍّ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏
It was narrated that from Aishah that the Messenger of Allah said:
"There is no day on which Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, frees more of his slaves, male and female, from the fire, than the day of Arafah. He comes close, then he boasts to the angels about them and say: 'What do these people want?'" (Sahih) Abdu Abdur-Rhamn (An-Nasai) said: It appears that Yunus bin Yusuf is the one who reported it from Malik and Allah, most High, Knows best.
أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنِ ابْنِ وَهْبٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي مَخْرَمَةُ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ يُونُسَ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يَعْتِقَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهِ عَبْدًا أَوْ أَمَةً مِنَ النَّارِ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ إِنَّهُ لَيَدْنُو ثُمَّ يُبَاهِي بِهِمُ الْمَلاَئِكَةَ وَيَقُولُ مَا أَرَادَ هَؤُلاَءِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ يُشْبِهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ يُونُسَ بْنَ يُوسُفَ الَّذِي رَوَى عَنْهُ مَالِكٌ وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Abdullah bin Ubaid bin Umair that a man said:
"O Abu abdur-Rahman, why do I only see you touching these two corners?" He said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Touching them erases sins.' And I head him say: 'whoever circumambulates seven times, it is like freeing a slave.'"
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَحْمَدُ بْنُ شُعَيْبٍ مِنْ لَفْظِهِ قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، قَالَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ مَا أَرَاكَ تَسْتَلِمُ إِلاَّ هَذَيْنِ الرُّكْنَيْنِ قَالَ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ إِنَّ مَسْحَهُمَا يَحُطَّانِ الْخَطِيئَةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ مَنْ طَافَ سَبْعًا فَهُوَ كَعِدْلِ رَقَبَةٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
When he was the governor of Al-Basrah, at the end of the month, Ibn 'Abbas said:
"Give Zakah of your fast." The people looked at one another, so he said: "Whoever is here from the people of Al-Madinah, get up and teach your brothers, for they do lnot know that this Zakah was enjoined by the Messenger of Allah upon every male and female, free and slave, a Sa' of barley or dates, or half a Sa' of wheat. "So they got up. (Da'if) Hisham contradicted him, he said: "From Muhammad bin Sirin."
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ الْحَارِثِ - قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حُمَيْدٌ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، قَالَ قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَهُوَ أَمِيرُ الْبَصْرَةِ فِي آخِرِ الشَّهْرِ أَخْرِجُوا زَكَاةَ صَوْمِكُمْ ‏.‏ فَنَظَرَ النَّاسُ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ فَقَالَ مَنْ هَا هُنَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ قُومُوا فَعَلِّمُوا إِخْوَانَكُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الزَّكَاةَ فَرَضَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى كُلِّ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى حُرٍّ وَمَمْلُوكٍ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ أَوْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ نِصْفَ صَاعٍ مِنْ قَمْحٍ ‏.‏ فَقَامُوا ‏.‏ خَالَفَهُ هِشَامٌ فَقَالَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Abbas said:
"A man came to him and said: 'I have made my wife forbidden to myself.' He said: 'You are lying, she is not forbidden to you.' Then he recited this Verse: 'O Prophet! Why do you forbid (for yourself) that which Allah has allowed to you.' (And he said): 'You have to offer the severest form of expiation: Freeing a slave.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الصَّمَدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْمَوْصِلِيُّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مَخْلَدٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ أَتَاهُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ إِنِّي جَعَلْتُ امْرَأَتِي عَلَىَّ حَرَامًا ‏.‏ قَالَ كَذَبْتَ لَيْسَتْ عَلَيْكَ بِحَرَامٍ ثُمَّ تَلاَ هَذِهِ الآيَةَ ‏{‏ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ‏}‏ عَلَيْكَ أَغْلَظُ الْكَفَّارَةِ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ash-Sha'bi said:
"I heard Abu Juhaifah say: 'We asked 'Ali: "Do you have anything from the Messenger of Allah apart from the Qur'an?" He said: "No, by the One who splits the seeds and creates the soul, unless Allah gives a slave understanding of His Book, or except this sheet." I said: "What is in the sheet?" He said: "In it are (the regulations concerning) blood money and the freeing of captives and (the rule) that no Muslim should be killed for killing a disbeliever."
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ مُطَرِّفِ بْنِ طَرِيفٍ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جُحَيْفَةَ، يَقُولُ سَأَلْنَا عَلِيًّا فَقُلْنَا هَلْ عِنْدَكُمْ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَىْءٌ سِوَى الْقُرْآنِ فَقَالَ لاَ وَالَّذِي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّةَ وَبَرَأَ النَّسَمَةَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُعْطِيَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَبْدًا فَهْمًا فِي كِتَابِهِ أَوْ مَا فِي هَذِهِ الصَّحِيفَةِ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ وَمَا فِي الصَّحِيفَةِ قَالَ فِيهَا ‏ "‏ الْعَقْلُ وَفِكَاكُ الأَسِيرِ وَأَنْ لاَ يُقْتَلَ مُسْلِمٌ بِكَافِرٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Jabir bin 'Abdullah said:
"A man among the Ansar stated that his salve was to be set free after he died; he was in need, and he owed a debt. The Messenger of Allah [SAW] sold him (the slave) for eight hundred Dirhams, and he gave (the money) to him and said: 'Pay off your debt and spend on your dependents.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى بْنُ وَاصِلِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَاضِرُ بْنُ الْمُوَرِّعِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ كُهَيْلٍ، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ أَعْتَقَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ غُلاَمًا لَهُ عَنْ دُبُرٍ وَكَانَ مُحْتَاجًا وَكَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَبَاعَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِثَمَانِمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأَعْطَاهُ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ اقْضِ دَيْنَكَ وَأَنْفِقْ عَلَى عِيَالِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Habibah At-Ta'i said:
"A man made a will leaving some Dinars (to be spent) in the cause of Allah. Abu Ad-Darda' was asked about that, and he narrated that the Prophet said: 'The likeness of the one who frees a slave or gives some charity when he is dying, is that of a man who gives a gift after he has eaten his fill.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا إِسْحَاقَ، سَمِعَ أَبَا حَبِيبَةَ الطَّائِيَّ، قَالَ أَوْصَى رَجُلٌ بِدَنَانِيرَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَسُئِلَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ فَحَدَّثَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَثَلُ الَّذِي يَعْتِقُ أَوْ يَتَصَدَّقُ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ مَثَلُ الَّذِي يُهْدِي بَعْدَ مَا يَشْبَعُ ‏"‏‏.‏
It was narrated that Abu Najih As-Sulami said:
"I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: 'Whoever shoots an arrow in the cause of Allah and it hits the target, it will raise him one level in Paradise.' That day I shot sixteen arrows that hit their targets." He said: "And I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: 'Whoever shoots an arrow in the cause of Allah, it is equal to the reward of freeing a slave.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا قَتَادَةُ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ أَبِي الْجَعْدِ، عَنْ مَعْدَانَ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي نَجِيحٍ السُّلَمِيِّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ مَنْ بَلَغَ بِسَهْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ لَهُ دَرَجَةٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَبَلَّغْتُ يَوْمَئِذٍ سِتَّةَ عَشَرَ سَهْمًا ‏.‏ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ مَنْ رَمَى بِسَهْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ عِدْلُ مُحَرَّرٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar:
The tradition mentioned above (No. 2468) has also been transmitted by Abdullah ibn Budayl through a different chain of narrators in a similar way. This version adds: While he (Umar) was observing i'tikaf (in the sacred mosque), the people uttered (loudly): "Allah is most great." He said: What is this, Abdullah? He said: These are the captives of the Hawazin whom the Messenger of Allah (saws) has set free. He said: This slave-girl too? He sent her along with them.
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبَانَ بْنِ صَالِحٍ الْقُرَشِيِّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، - يَعْنِي الْعَنْقَزِيَّ - عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُدَيْلٍ، بِإِسْنَادِهِ نَحْوَهُ قَالَ فَبَيْنَمَا هُوَ مُعْتَكِفٌ إِذْ كَبَّرَ النَّاسُ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ قَالَ سَبْىُ هَوَازِنَ أَعْتَقَهُمُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ وَتِلْكَ الْجَارِيَةُ ‏.‏ فَأَرْسَلَهَا مَعَهُمْ ‏.‏