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Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Muhammad Sirin used to say, "Do not sell grain on the ears until it is white." Malik said, "If someone buys food for a known price to be delivered at a stated date, and when the date comes, the one who owes the food says, 'I do not have any food, sell me the food which I owe you with delayed terms.' The owner of the food says, 'This is not good, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade selling food until the deal was completed.' The one who owes the food says to his creditor, 'Sell me any kind of food on delayed terms until I discharge the debt to you.' This is not good because he gives him food and then he returns it to him. The gold which he gave him becomes the price of that which is his right against him and the food which he gave him becomes what clears what is between them. If they do that, it becomes the sale of food before the deal is complete." Malik spoke about a man who was owed food which he had purchased from a man and this man was owed the like of that food by another man. The one who owed the food said to his creditor, "I will refer you to my debtor who owes me the same amount of food as I owe you, so that you may obtain the food which I owe you ." Malik said, "If the man who had to deliver the food, had gone out, and bought the food to pay off his creditor, that is not good. That is selling food before taking possession of it. If the food is an advance which falls due at that particular time, there is no harm in paying off his creditor with it because that is nota sale. It is not halal to sell food before receiving it in full since the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade that. However, the people of knowledge agree that there is no harm in partnership, transfer of responsibility and revocation in sales of food and other goods." Malik said, "That is because the people of knowledge consider it as a favour rendered. They do not consider it as a sale. It is like a man lending light dirhams. He is then paid back in dirhams of full weight, and so gets back more than he lent. That is halal for him and permitted. Had a man bought defective dirhams from him as being the full weight, that would not be halal. Had it been stipulated to him that he lend full weight in dirhams, and then he gave faulty ones, that would not be halal for him."
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ سِيرِينَ، كَانَ يَقُولُ لاَ تَبِيعُوا الْحَبَّ فِي سُنْبُلِهِ حَتَّى يَبْيَضَّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنِ اشْتَرَى طَعَامًا بِسِعْرٍ مَعْلُومٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَلَمَّا حَلَّ الأَجَلُ قَالَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الطَّعَامُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَيْسَ عِنْدِي طَعَامٌ فَبِعْنِي الطَّعَامَ الَّذِي لَكَ عَلَىَّ إِلَى أَجَلٍ ‏.‏ فَيَقُولُ صَاحِبُ الطَّعَامِ هَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ قَدْ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ بَيْعِ الطَّعَامِ حَتَّى يُسْتَوْفَى ‏.‏ فَيَقُولُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الطَّعَامُ لِغَرِيمِهِ فَبِعْنِي طَعَامًا إِلَى أَجَلٍ حَتَّى أَقْضِيَكَهُ ‏.‏ فَهَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا يُعْطِيهِ طَعَامًا ثُمَّ يَرُدُّهُ إِلَيْهِ ‏.‏ فَيَصِيرُ الذَّهَبُ الَّذِي أَعْطَاهُ ثَمَنَ الَّذِي كَانَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَيَصِيرُ الطَّعَامُ الَّذِي أَعْطَاهُ مُحَلَّلاً فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ إِذَا فَعَلاَهُ بَيْعَ الطَّعَامِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْتَوْفَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ لَهُ عَلَى رَجُلٍ طَعَامٌ ابْتَاعَهُ مِنْهُ وَلِغَرِيمِهِ عَلَى رَجُلٍ طَعَامٌ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ الطَّعَامِ فَقَالَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الطَّعَامُ لِغَرِيمِهِ أُحِيلُكَ عَلَى غَرِيمٍ لِي عَلَيْهِ مِثْلُ الطَّعَامِ الَّذِي لَكَ عَلَىَّ بِطَعَامِكَ الَّذِي لَكَ عَلَىَّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الطَّعَامُ إِنَّمَا هُوَ طَعَامٌ ابْتَاعَهُ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ ...
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 54
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1347
Hadith 10, 40 Hadith an-Nawawi
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (ra):
The Messenger of Allah (saws) said, “Allah the Almighty is Good and accepts only that which is good. And verily Allah has commanded the believers to do that which He has commanded the Messengers. So the Almighty has said: “O (you) Messengers! Eat of the tayyibat [all kinds of halal (legal) foods], and perform righteous deeds.” [23:51] and the Almighty has said: “O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you.” [2:172]” Then he (saws) mentioned [the case] of a man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty, and who spreads out his hands to the sky saying “O Lord! O Lord!,” while his food is haram (unlawful), his drink is haram, his clothing is haram, and he has been nourished with haram, so how can [his supplication] be answered? [Muslim]
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه و سلم "إنَّ اللَّهَ طَيِّبٌ لَا يَقْبَلُ إلَّا طَيِّبًا، وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَمَرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِمَا أَمَرَ بِهِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ فَقَالَ تَعَالَى: "يَا أَيُّهَا الرُّسُلُ كُلُوا مِنْ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَاعْمَلُوا صَالِحًا"، وَقَالَ تَعَالَى: "يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ" ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ الرَّجُلَ يُطِيلُ السَّفَرَ أَشْعَثَ أَغْبَرَ يَمُدُّ يَدَيْهِ إلَى السَّمَاءِ: يَا رَبِّ! يَا رَبِّ! وَمَطْعَمُهُ حَرَامٌ، وَمَشْرَبُهُ حَرَامٌ، وَمَلْبَسُهُ حَرَامٌ، وَغُذِّيَ بِالْحَرَامِ، فَأَنَّى يُسْتَجَابُ لَهُ؟". [رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ]
Sahih al-Bukhari 7152
Narrated Tarif Abi Tamima:
I saw Safwan and Jundab and Safwan's companions when Jundab was advising. They said, "Did you hear something from Allah's Apostle?" Jundab said, "I heard him saying, 'Whoever does a good deed in order to show off, Allah will expose his intentions on the Day of Resurrection (before the people), and whoever puts the people into difficulties, Allah will put him into difficulties on the Day of Resurrection.'" The people said (to Jundab), "Advise us." He said, "The first thing of the human body to purify is the `Abdomen, so he who can eat nothing but good food (Halal and earned lawfully) should do so, and he who does as much as he can that nothing intervene between him and Paradise by not shedding even a handful of blood, (i.e. murdering) should do so."
حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ الْوَاسِطِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، عَنِ الْجُرَيْرِيِّ، عَنِ طَرِيفٍ أَبِي تَمِيمَةَ، قَالَ شَهِدْتُ صَفْوَانَ وَجُنْدَبًا وَأَصْحَابَهُ وَهْوَ يُوصِيهِمْ فَقَالُوا هَلْ سَمِعْتَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَيْئًا قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ مَنْ سَمَّعَ سَمَّعَ اللَّهُ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ـ قَالَ ـ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِقْ يَشْقُقِ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالُوا أَوْصِنَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ‏"‏ إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُنْتِنُ مِنَ الإِنْسَانِ بَطْنُهُ، فَمَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ أَنْ لاَ يَأْكُلَ إِلاَّ طَيِّبًا فَلْيَفْعَلْ، وَمَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ أَنْ لاَ يُحَالَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ بِمِلْءِ كَفِّهِ مِنْ دَمٍ أَهْرَاقَهُ فَلْيَفْعَلْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ مَنْ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم جُنْدَبٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ جُنْدَبٌ‏.‏
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 7152
In-book reference : Book 93, Hadith 16
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 9, Book 89, Hadith 266
  (deprecated numbering scheme)
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard the same as that from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ibn Muayqib ad-Dawsi. Malik said, "This is the way of doing things among us . " Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us is that wheat is not sold for wheat, dates for dates, wheat for dates, dates for raisins, wheat for raisins, nor any kind of food sold for food at all, except from hand to hand. If there is any sort of delayed terms in the transaction, it is not good. It is haram. Condiments are not bartered except from hand to hand." Malik said, "Food and condiments are not bartered when they are the same type, two of one kind for one of the other. A mudd of wheat is not sold for two mudds of wheat, nor a mudd of dates for two mudds of dates, nor a mudd of raisins for two mudds of raisins, nor is anything of that sort done with grains and condiments when they are of one kind, even if it is hand to hand. "This is the same position as silver for silver and gold for gold. No increase is halal in the transaction, and only like for like, from hand to hand is halal." Malik said, "If there is a clear difference in foodstuffs which are measured and weighed, there is no harm in taking two of one kind for one of another, hand to hand. There is no harm in taking a sa of dates for two sa of wheat, and a sa of dates for two sa of raisins, and a sa of wheat for two sa of ghee. If the two sorts in the transaction are different, there is no harm in two for one or more than that from hand to hand. If delayed terms enter into the sale, it is not halal ." Malik said, "It is not halal to trade a heap of wheat for a heap of wheat. There is no harm in a heap of wheat for a heap of dates, from hand to hand. That is because there is no harm in buying wheat with dates without precise measurement." Malik said, "With kinds of foods and condiments that differ from each other, and the difference is clear, there is no harm in bartering one kind for another, without precise measurement from hand to hand. If delayed terms enter into the sale, there is no good in it. Bartering such things without precise measurement is like buying it with gold and silver without measuring precisely." Malik said, "That is because you buy wheat with silver without measuring precisely, and dates with gold without measuring precisely, and it is halal. There is no harm in it." Malik said, "It is not good for someone to make a heap of food, knowing its measure and then to sell it as if it had not been measured precisely, concealing its measure from the buyer. If the buyer wants to return that food to the seller, he can, because he concealed its measure and so it is an uncertain transaction. This is done with any kind of food or other goods whose measure and number the seller knows, and which he then sells without measurement and the buyer does not know that. If the buyer wants to return that to the seller, he can return t. The people of knowledge still forbid such a transaction." Malik said, "There is no good in selling one round loaf of bread for two round loaves, nor large for small when some of them are bigger than others. When care is taken that they are like for like, there is no harm in the sale, even if they are not weighed." Malik said, "It is not good to sell a mudd of butter and a mudd of milk for two mudds of butter. This is like what we described of selling dates when two sa of kabis and a sa of poor quality dates were sold for three sa of ajwa dates after the buyer had said to the seller, 'Two sa of kabis dates for three sa of ajwa dates is not good,' and then he did that to make the transaction possible. The owner of the milk puts the milk with his butter so that he can use the superiority of his butter over the butter of the other party to put his milk in with it." Malik said, "Flour for wheat is like for like, and there is no harm in that. That is if he does not mix up anything with the flour and sell it for wheat, like for like. Had he put half a mudd of flour and half of wheat, and then sold that for a mudd of wheat, it would be like what we described, and it would not be good because he would want to use the superiority of his good wheat to put flour along with it. Such a transaction is not good."
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ مُعَيْقِيبٍ الدَّوْسِيِّ، مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهُوَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنْ لاَ تُبَاعَ الْحِنْطَةُ بِالْحِنْطَةِ وَلاَ التَّمْرُ بِالتَّمْرِ وَلاَ الْحِنْطَةُ بِالتَّمْرِ وَلاَ التَّمْرُ بِالزَّبِيبِ وَلاَ الْحِنْطَةُ بِالزَّبِيبِ وَلاَ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ كُلِّهِ إِلاَّ يَدًا بِيَدٍ فَإِنْ دَخَلَ شَيْئًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ الأَجَلُ لَمْ يَصْلُحْ وَكَانَ حَرَامًا وَلاَ شَىْءَ مِنَ الأُدْمِ كُلِّهَا إِلاَّ يَدًا بِيَدٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ يُبَاعُ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ وَالأُدْمِ إِذَا كَانَ مِنْ صِنْفٍ وَاحِدٍ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ فَلاَ يُبَاعُ مُدُّ حِنْطَةٍ بِمُدَّىْ حِنْطَةٍ وَلاَ مُدُّ تَمْرٍ بِمُدَّىْ تَمْرٍ وَلاَ مُدُّ زَبِيبٍ بِمُدَّىْ زَبِيبٍ وَلاَ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْحُبُوبِ وَالأُدْمِ كُلِّهَا إِذَا كَانَ مِنْ صِنْفٍ وَاحِدٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَرِقِ بِالْوَرِقِ وَالذَّهَبِ بِالذَّهَبِ لاَ يَحِلُّ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْفَضْلُ وَلاَ يَحِلُّ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ يَدًا بِيَدٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِذَا اخْتَلَفَ مَا يُكَالُ أَوْ يُوزَنُ مِمَّا يُؤْكَلُ أَوْ يُشْرَبُ فَبَانَ اخْتِلاَفُهُ فَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ مِنْهُ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَدًا بِيَدٍ وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ صَاعٌ مِنْ تَمْرٍ بِصَاعَيْنِ ...
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 52
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1345
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said that there was no harm in a man making an advance to another man for food, with a set description and price until a set date, as long as it was not in crops, or dates which had not begun to ripen. Malik said, "The way of doing things among us concerning someone who makes an advance for foodstuffs at a known rate until a stated date, and the date arrives and he finds that there is not enough of what he was sold with the seller to fulfill his order, and so he revokes the sale, is that he must only take back the silver, gold, or price which he paid exactly. He does not buy anything else from the man for the same price until he has got back what he paid. That is because if he took something else besides the price which he paid him or exchanged it for goods other than the goods which he bought from him, it would be selling food before getting delivery of it." Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade selling food before getting delivery of it." Malik said that it was not good if the buyer regretted his purchase and asked the seller to revoke the sale for him and he would not press him immediately for what he had paid. The people of knowledge forbade that. That was because when the food was made ready for the buyer by the seller, the buyer deferred his due from the seller in order that he might revoke the sale for him. That was the sale of food with delayed terms before taking delivery of the food. Malik said, "The explanation of that is that when the date of delivery comes and the buyer dislikes the food, the seller takes by it money to be paid later and so it is not revocation. Revocation is that in which neither the buyer nor the seller is increased. When increase occurs by deferment of payment for a time period, or by anything which increases one of them over the other or anything which gives one of them profit, it is not revocation. When either of them do that, revocation becomes a sale. There is an indulgence for revocation, partnership, and transfer, as long as i ncrease, decrease, or deferment does not come into them. If increase, decrease, or deferment comes into it, it becomes a sale. Whatever makes a sale halal makes it halal and whatever makes a sale haram makes it haram." Malik said, "If someone pays in advance for Syrian wheat, there is no harm if he takes a load after the term falls due." Malik said, "It is the same with whoever advances for any kind of thing. There is no harm in him taking better than whatever he has made an advance for or worse than it after the agreed delivery date. The explanation of that is that if, for instance, a man advances for a certain weight of wheat. There is no harm if he decides to take some barley or Syrian wheat. If he has made an advance for good dates, there is no harm if he decides to take poor quality dates. If he paid in advance for red raisins, there is no harm if he takes black ones, when it happens after the agreed delivery date, and when the measure of what he takes is like the measure of what he paid for in advance."
حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ لاَ بَأْسَ بِأَنْ يُسَلِّفَ الرَّجُلُ الرَّجُلَ فِي الطَّعَامِ الْمَوْصُوفِ بِسِعْرٍ مَعْلُومٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ فِي زَرْعٍ لَمْ يَبْدُ صَلاَحُهُ أَوْ تَمْرٍ لَمْ يَبْدُ صَلاَحُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِيمَنْ سَلَّفَ فِي طَعَامٍ بِسِعْرٍ مَعْلُومٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَحَلَّ الأَجَلُ فَلَمْ يَجِدِ الْمُبْتَاعُ عِنْدَ الْبَائِعِ وَفَاءً مِمَّا ابْتَاعَ مِنْهُ فَأَقَالَهُ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ وَرِقَهُ أَوْ ذَهَبَهُ أَوِ الثَّمَنَ الَّذِي دَفَعَ إِلَيْهِ بِعَيْنِهِ وَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَشْتَرِي مِنْهُ بِذَلِكَ الثَّمَنِ شَيْئًا حَتَّى يَقْبِضَهُ مِنْهُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ إِذَا أَخَذَ غَيْرَ الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي دَفَعَ إِلَيْهِ أَوْ صَرَفَهُ فِي سِلْعَةٍ غَيْرِ الطَّعَامِ الَّذِي ابْتَاعَ مِنْهُ فَهُوَ بَيْعُ الطَّعَامِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْتَوْفَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَقَدْ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ بَيْعِ الطَّعَامِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْتَوْفَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ نَدِمَ الْمُشْتَرِي فَقَالَ لِلْبَائِعِ أَقِلْنِي وَأُنْظِرُكَ بِالثَّمَنِ الَّذِي دَفَعْتُ إِلَيْكَ ‏.‏ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ وَأَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَمَّا حَلَّ الطَّعَامُ لِلْمُشْتَرِي عَلَى الْبَائِعِ أَخَّرَ عَنْهُ حَقَّهُ عَلَى أَنْ يُقِيلَهُ فَكَانَ ...
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 49
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1342
Malik said, "Another example of that is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the sale called muzabana and granted an indulgence in the ariya for computing the equivalent in dates. It was distinguished between them that the muzabana-sale was based on shrewdness and trade, and the ariya sale was based on a favour rendered, and there was no shrewdness in it." Malik said, "A man must not buy food for a fourth, a third, or a fraction of a dirham on the basis that he be given that food on credit. There is no harm in a man buying food for a fraction of a dirham on credit and then he gives a dirham and takes goods with what remains of his dirham because he gave the fraction he owed as silver, and took goods to make up the rest of his dirham. There is no harm in that transaction." Malik said, "There is no harm in a man placing a dirham with another man and then taking from him known goods for a fourth, third, or a known fraction. If there was not a known price on the goods and the man said, 'I will take them from you for the price of each day,' this is not halal because there is uncertainty. It might be less one time, and more another time, and they would not part with a known sale." Malik said, "If someone sells some food without measuring precisely and does not exclude any of it from the sale and then it occurs to him to buy some of it, it is not good for him to buy any of it except what it would be permitted for him to exclude from it. That is a third or less. If it is more than a third, it becomes muzabana and is disapproved. He must only purchase from what he would be permitted to exclude, and he is only permitted to exclude a third or less than that. This is the way of doing things in which there is no dispute with us."
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 55
Malik said there was no harm if a man who sold some drapery and excluded some garments by their markings, stipulated that he chose the marked ones from that. If he did not stipulate that he would choose from them when he made the exclusion, I think that he is partner in the number of drapery goods which were purchased from him. That is because two garments can be alike in marking and be greatly different in price. Malik said, "The way of doing things among us is that there is no harm in partnership, transferring responsibility to an agent, and revocation when dealing with food and other things, whether or not possession was taken, when the transaction is with cash, and there is no profit, loss, or deferment of price in it. If profit or loss or deferment of price from one of the two enters any of these transactions, it becomes sale which is made halal by what makes sale halal, and made haram by what makes sale haram, and it is not partnership, transferring responsibility to an agent, or revocation." Malik spoke about some one who bought drapery goods or slaves, and the sale was concluded, then a man asked him to be his partner and he agreed and the new partner paid the whole price to the seller and then something happened to the goods which removed them from their possession. Malik said, "The new partner takes the price from the original partner and the original partner demands from the seller the whole price unless the original partner stipulated on the new partner during the sale and before the transaction with the seller was completed that the seller was responsible to him. If the transaction has ended and the seller has gone, the pre-condition of the original partner is void, and he has the responsibility." Malik spoke about a man who asked another man to buy certain goods to share between them, and he wanted the other man to pay for him and he would sell the goods for the other man. Malik said, "That is not good. When he says, 'Pay for me and I will sell it for you,' it becomes a loan which he makes to him in order that he sell it for him and if those goods are destroyed, or pass, the man who paid the price will demand from his partner what he put in for him. This is part of the advance which brings in profit." Malik said, "If a man buys goods, and they are settled for him, and then a man says to him, 'Share half of these goods with me, and I will sell them all for you,' that is halal, there is no harm in it. The explanation of that is that this is a new sale and he sells him half of the goods provided that he sells the whole lot."
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 87
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad was asked about a man who bought goods for 10 dinars cash or fifteen dinars on credit. He disapproved of that and forbade it. Malik said that if a man bought goods from a man for either 10 dinars or 15 dinars on credit, that one of the two prices was obliged on the buyer. It was not to be done because if he postponed paying the ten, it would be 15 on credit, and if he paid the ten, he would buy with it what was worth fifteen dinars on credit. Malik said that it was disapproved of for a man to buy goods from someone for either a dinar cash or for a described sheep on credit and that one of the two prices was obliged on him. It was not to be done because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade two sales in one sale. This was part of two sales in the one sale. Malik spoke about a man saying to another, "'I will either buy these fifteen sa of ajwa dates from you, or these ten sa of sayhani dates or I will buy these fifteen sa of inferior wheat or these ten sa of Syrian wheat for a dinar, and one of them is obliged to me.' Malik said that it was disapproved of and was not halal. That was because he obliged him ten sa of sayhani, and left them and took fifteen sa of ajwa, or he was obliged fifteen sa of inferior wheat and left them and took ten sa of Syrian wheat. This was also disapproved of, and was not halal. It resembled what was prohibited in the way of two sales in one sale. It was also included under the prohibition against buying two for one of the same sort of food."
وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ، سُئِلَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، اشْتَرَى سِلْعَةً بِعَشَرَةِ دَنَانِيرَ نَقْدًا أَوْ بِخَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ دِينَارًا إِلَى أَجَلٍ فَكَرِهَ ذَلِكَ وَنَهَى عَنْهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ ابْتَاعَ سِلْعَةً مِنْ رَجُلٍ بِعَشَرَةِ دَنَانِيرَ نَقْدًا أَوْ بِخَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ دِينَارًا إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَدْ وَجَبَتْ لِلْمُشْتَرِي بِأَحَدِ الثَّمَنَيْنِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يَنْبَغِي ذَلِكَ لأَنَّهُ إِنْ أَخَّرَ الْعَشَرَةَ كَانَتْ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ إِلَى أَجَلٍ وَإِنْ نَقَدَ الْعَشَرَةَ كَانَ إِنَّمَا اشْتَرَى بِهَا الْخَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ الَّتِي إِلَى أَجَلٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ اشْتَرَى مِنْ رَجُلٍ سِلْعَةً بِدِينَارٍ نَقْدًا أَوْ بِشَاةٍ مَوْصُوفَةٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَدْ وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ بِأَحَدِ الثَّمَنَيْنِ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مَكْرُوهٌ لاَ يَنْبَغِي لأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدْ نَهَى عَنْ بَيْعَتَيْنِ فِي بَيْعَةٍ وَهَذَا مِنْ بَيْعَتَيْنِ فِي بَيْعَةٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ قَالَ لِرَجُلٍ أَشْتَرِي مِنْكَ هَذِهِ الْعَجْوَةَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ صَاعًا أَوِ الصَّيْحَانِيَّ عَشَرَةَ أَصْوُعٍ أَوِ الْحِنْطَةَ الْمَحْمُولَةَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ صَاعًا أَوِ الشَّامِيَّةَ عَشَرَةَ أَصْوُعٍ بِدِينَارٍ قَدْ وَجَبَتْ لِي إِحْدَاهُمَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مَكْرُوهٌ لاَ يَحِلُّ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ قَدْ أَوْجَبَ لَهُ عَشَرَةَ أَصْوُعٍ صَيْحَانِيًّا فَهُوَ يَدَعُهَا وَيَأْخُذُ خَمْسَةَ ...
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 74
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1364
Malik related to me from Humayd ibn Qays al-Makki that Mujahid said, "Abdullah ibn Umar borrowed some dirhams from a man, then he discharged his debt with dirhams better than them. The man said, 'Abu Abdar-Rahman. These are better than the dirhams which I lent you.' Abdullah ibn Umar said, 'I know that. But I am happy with myself about that.' " Malik said, "There is no harm in a person who has borrowed gold, silver, food, or animals, taking to the person who lent it, something better than what he lent, when that is not a stipulation between them nor a custom. If that is by a stipulation or promise or custom, then it is disapproved, and there is no good in it." He said, "That is because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, discharged his debt with a good camel in its seventh year in place of a young camel which he borrowed, and Abdullah ibn Umar borrowed some dirhams, and repaid them with better ones. If that is from the goodness of the borrower, and it is not by a stipulation, promise, or custom, it is halal and there is no harm in it."
وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْمَكِّيِّ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ اسْتَسْلَفَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ مِنْ رَجُلٍ دَرَاهِمَ ثُمَّ قَضَاهُ دَرَاهِمَ خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ هَذِهِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ دَرَاهِمِي الَّتِي أَسْلَفْتُكَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ قَدْ عَلِمْتُ وَلَكِنْ نَفْسِي بِذَلِكَ طَيِّبَةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ بَأْسَ بِأَنْ يُقْبِضَ مَنْ أُسْلِفَ شَيْئًا مِنَ الذَّهَبِ أَوِ الْوَرِقِ أَوِ الطَّعَامِ أَوِ الْحَيَوَانِ مِمَّنْ أَسْلَفَهُ ذَلِكَ أَفْضَلَ مِمَّا أَسْلَفَهُ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى شَرْطٍ مِنْهُمَا أَوْ عَادَةٍ فَإِنْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى شَرْطٍ أَوْ وَأْىٍ أَوْ عَادَةٍ فَذَلِكَ مَكْرُوهٌ وَلاَ خَيْرَ فِيهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَضَى جَمَلاً رَبَاعِيًا خِيَارًا مَكَانَ بَكْرٍ اسْتَسْلَفَهُ وَأَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ اسْتَسْلَفَ دَرَاهِمَ فَقَضَى خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى طِيبِ نَفْسٍ مِنَ الْمُسْتَسْلِفِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى شَرْطٍ وَلاَ وَأْىٍ وَلاَ عَادَةٍ كَانَ ذَلِكَ حَلاَلاً لاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ ‏.‏
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 91
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1377
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, ''I heard Abdullah ibn Abbas say, when a man asked him about a man making an advance on some garments and then wanting to sell them back before taking possession of them, 'That is silver for silver,' and he disapproved of it." Malik said, "Our opinion is - and Allah knows best that was because he wanted to sell them to the person from whom he had bought them for more than the price for which he bought them. Had he sold them to some one other than the person from whom he had purchased them, there would not have been any harm in it." Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us concerning making an advance for slaves, cattle or goods is that when all of what is to be sold is described and an advance is made for them for a date, and the date falls due, the buyer does not sell any of that to the person from whom he has purchased it for more than the price which he advanced for it before he has taken full possession of what he has advanced for. It is usury if he does. If the buyer gives the seller dinars or dirhams and he profits with them, then, when the goods come to the buyer and he does not take them into his possession but sells them back to their owner for more than what he advanced for them, the outcome is that what he has advanced has returned to him and has been increased for him." Malik said, "If someone advances gold or silver for described animals or goods which are to be delivered before a named date, and the date arrives, or it is before or after the date, there is no harm in the buyer selling those goods to the seller, for other goods, to be taken immediately and not delayed, no matter how extensive the amount of those goods is, except in the case of food because it is not halal to sell it before he has full possession of it. The buyer can sell those goods to some one other than the person from whom he purchased them for gold or silver or any goods. He takes possession of it and does not defer it because if he defers it, that is ugly and there enters into the transaction what is disapproved of:
delay for delay. Delay for delay is to sell a debt against one man for a debt against another man." Malik said, "If someone advances for goods to be delivered after a time, and those goods are neither something to be eaten nor drunk, he can sell them to whomever he likes for cash or goods, before he takes delivery of them, to some one other than the person from whom he purchased them. He must not sell them to the person from whom he bought them except in exchange for goods which he takes possession of immediately and does not defer." Malik said, "If the delivery date for the goods has not arrived, there is no harm in selling them to the original owner for goods which are clearly different and which he takes immediate possession of and does not defer." Malik spoke about the case of a man who advanced dinars or dirhams for four specified pieces of cloth to be delivered before a specified time and when the term fell due, he demanded delivery from the seller and the seller did not have them. He found that the seller had cloth but inferior quality, and the seller said that he would give him eight of those cloths. Malik said, "There is no harm in that if he takes the cloths which he offers him before they separate. It is not good if delayed terms enter into the transaction. It is also not good if that is before the end of the term, unless he sells him cloth which is notthetypeof cloth for which he made an advance.
حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، وَرَجُلٌ، يَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، سَلَّفَ فِي سَبَائِبَ فَأَرَادَ بَيْعَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقْبِضَهَا فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ تِلْكَ الْوَرِقُ بِالْوَرِقِ ‏.‏ وَكَرِهَ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ فِيمَا نُرَى وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبِيعَهَا مِنْ صَاحِبِهَا الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهَا مِنْهُ بِأَكْثَرَ مِنَ الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي ابْتَاعَهَا بِهِ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُ بَاعَهَا مِنْ غَيْرِ الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهَا مِنْهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِذَلِكَ بَأْسٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا فِيمَنْ سَلَّفَ فِي رَقِيقٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ أَوْ عُرُوضٍ فَإِذَا كَانَ كُلُّ شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَوْصُوفًا فَسَلَّفَ فِيهِ إِلَى أَجَلٍ فَحَلَّ الأَجَلُ فَإِنَّ الْمُشْتَرِيَ لاَ يَبِيعُ شَيْئًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهُ مِنْهُ بِأَكْثَرَ مِنَ الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي سَلَّفَهُ فِيهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقْبِضَ مَا سَلَّفَهُ فِيهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ إِذَا فَعَلَهُ فَهُوَ الرِّبَا صَارَ الْمُشْتَرِي إِنْ أَعْطَى الَّذِي بَاعَهُ دَنَانِيرَ أَوْ دَرَاهِمَ فَانْتَفَعَ بِهَا فَلَمَّا حَلَّتْ عَلَيْهِ السِّلْعَةُ وَلَمْ يَقْبِضْهَا الْمُشْتَرِي بَاعَهَا مِنْ صَاحِبِهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا سَلَّفَهُ فِيهَا فَصَارَ أَنْ رَدَّ إِلَيْهِ مَا سَلَّفَهُ وَزَادَهُ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ ...
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 70
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1361
Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn Qusayt saw Said ibn al-Musayyab sell gold counterpoising for gold. He poured his gold into one pan of the scales, and the man with whom he was counterpoising put his gold in the other pan of the scale and when the tongue of the scales was balanced, they took and gave. Malik said, "According to the way things are done among us there is no harm in selling gold for gold, and silver for silver by counterpoising weight, even if 11 dinars are taken for 10 dinars hand to hand, when the weight of gold is equal, coin for coin, even if the number is different. Dirhams in such a situation are treated the same way as dinars." Malik said, "If, when counterpoising gold for gold or silver for silver, there is a difference of weight, one party should not give the other the value of the difference in silver or something else. Such a transaction is ugly and a means to usury because if one of the parties were permitted to take the difference for a separate price, it could be as if he had bought it separately, so he would be permitted. Then it would be possible for him to ask for many times the value of the difference in order to permit the completion of the transaction between the two parties. Malik said, "If he had really been sold the difference without anything else with it, he would not have taken it for a tenth of the price for which he took it in order to put a 'legal front' on the transaction. This leads to allowing what is forbidden . The matter is forbidden." Malik said that it was not good when counterpoising to give good old gold coins and put along with them unminted gold in exchange for worn kufic gold, which was unpopular and to then treat the exchange as like for like. Malik said, "The commentary on why that is disapproved is that the owner of the good gold uses the excellence of his old gold coins as an excuse to throw in the unminted gold with it. Had it not been for the superiority of his (good) gold over the gold of the other party, the other party would not have counterpoised the unminted gold for his kufic gold, and the deal would have been refused. "It is like a man wanting to buy three sa of ajwa dried dates for two sa and a mudd of kabis dates, and on being told that it was not good, then offering two sa of kabis and a sa of poor dates desiring to make the sale possible. That is not good because the owner of the ajwa should not give him a sa of ajwa for a sa of poor dates. He would only give him that because of the excellence of kabis dates. "Or it is like a man asking some one to sell him three sa of white wheat for two and a half sa of Syrian wheat, and being told that it was not good except like for like, and so offering two sa of wheat and one sa of barley intending to make the sale possible between them. That is not good because no one would have given a sa of barley for a sa of white wheat had that sa been by itself. It was only given because of the excellence of Syrian wheat over the white wheat. This is not good. It is the same as the case of the unminted gold." Malik said, "Where gold, silver and food, things which should only be sold like for like, are concerned, something disliked and of poor quality should not be put with something good and desirable in order to make the sale possible and to make a bad situation halal. When something of desirable quality is put with something of poor quality and it is only included so that its excellence in quality is noticed, something is being sold which if it had been sold on its own, would not have been accepted and to which the buyer would not have paid any attention. It is only accepted by the buyer because of the superiority of what comes with it over his own goods. Transactions involving gold, silver, or food, must not have anything of this description enter into them. If the owner of the poor quality goods wants to sell them, he sells them on their own, and does not put anything with them. There is no harm if it is like that."
حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ قُسَيْطٍ، أَنَّهُ رَأَى سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ يُرَاطِلُ الذَّهَبَ بِالذَّهَبِ فَيُفْرِغُ ذَهَبَهُ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ وَيُفْرِغُ صَاحِبُهُ الَّذِي يُرَاطِلُهُ ذَهَبَهُ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ الأُخْرَى فَإِذَا اعْتَدَلَ لِسَانُ الْمِيزَانِ أَخَذَ وَأَعْطَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي بَيْعِ الذَّهَبِ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ بِالْوَرِقِ مُرَاطَلَةً أَنَّهُ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ دِينَارًا بِعَشَرَةِ دَنَانِيرَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ إِذَا كَانَ وَزْنُ الذَّهَبَيْنِ سَوَاءً عَيْنًا بِعَيْنٍ وَإِنْ تَفَاضَلَ الْعَدَدُ وَالدَّرَاهِمُ أَيْضًا فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الدَّنَانِيرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ رَاطَلَ ذَهَبًا بِذَهَبٍ أَوْ وَرِقًا بِوَرِقٍ فَكَانَ بَيْنَ الذَّهَبَيْنِ فَضْلُ مِثْقَالٍ فَأَعْطَى صَاحِبَهُ قِيمَتَهُ مِنَ الْوَرِقِ أَوْ مِنْ غَيْرِهَا فَلاَ يَأْخُذُهُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ قَبِيحٌ وَذَرِيعَةٌ إِلَى الرِّبَا لأَنَّهُ إِذَا جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْمِثْقَالَ بِقِيمَتِهِ حَتَّى كَأَنَّهُ اشْتَرَاهُ عَلَى حِدَتِهِ جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْمِثْقَالَ بِقِيمَتِهِ مِرَارًا لأَنْ يُجِيزَ ذَلِكَ الْبَيْعَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ صَاحِبِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُ بَاعَهُ ذَلِكَ الْمِثْقَالَ مُفْرَدًا لَيْسَ مَعَهُ غَيْرُهُ لَمْ يَأْخُذْهُ بِعُشْرِ الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي أَخَذَهُ بِهِ لأَنْ يُجَوِّزَ ...
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 39
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1331