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Narrated Ibn `Umar:
The Prophet said, "If one manumits his share of a common slave (Abd), and he has money sufficient to free the remaining portion of the price of the slave (justly estimated), then he should free the slave completely by paying the rest of his price; otherwise the slave is freed partly. "
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا لَهُ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ، فَكَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ مَا يَبْلُغُ قِيمَتَهُ، يُقَوَّمُ عَلَيْهِ قِيمَةَ عَدْلٍ، وَأُعْتِقَ مِنْ مَالِهِ، وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ ‏"‏‏.‏
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
The Prophet (saws) was brought a pouch containing bead and divided it among free women and slave women. Aisha said: My father used to divide things between free men and slave.
حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى الرَّازِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي ذِئْبٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نِيَارٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، رضى الله عَنْهَا أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أُتِيَ بِظَبْيَةٍ فِيهَا خَرَزٌ فَقَسَمَهَا لِلْحُرَّةِ وَالأَمَةِ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ كَانَ أَبِي رضى الله عنه يَقْسِمُ لِلْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدِ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said:
"The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever sets free his share of a slave, and he has sufficient wealth to set him free completely by paying the price of the slave, then he should set him free with his own wealth."'
أَخْبَرَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ زُرَيْعٍ - قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَيُّوبُ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي مَمْلُوكٍ وَكَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ مَا يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَهُ بِقِيمَةِ الْعَبْدِ فَهُوَ عَتِيقٌ مِنْ مَالِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated Asma' bint Abu Bakr:
The Prophet ordered us to free slaves at the time of solar eclipses.
حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ مَسْعُودٍ، حَدَّثَنَا زَائِدَةُ بْنُ قُدَامَةَ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ الْمُنْذِرِ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ بِنْتِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَتْ أَمَرَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِالْعَتَاقَةِ فِي كُسُوفِ الشَّمْسِ‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَنِ الدَّرَاوَرْدِيِّ عَنْ هِشَامٍ‏.‏
Narrated Asma' bint Abu Bakr:
We were ordered to free slaves at the time of lunar eclipses.
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَثَّامٌ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ الْمُنْذِرِ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ بِنْتِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَتْ كُنَّا نُؤْمَرُ عِنْدَ الْخُسُوفِ بِالْعَتَاقَةِ‏.‏
Narrated Abu Huraira:
That the Prophet said, "Whoever frees his portion of a (common) slave."
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ أَبِي رَجَاءٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ آدَمَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ، سَمِعْتُ قَتَادَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي النَّضْرُ بْنُ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ بَشِيرِ بْنِ نَهِيكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏{‏مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شَقِيصًا مِنْ عَبْدٍ ‏}‏
Narrated `Abdullah:
The Muslims did not free slaves as Sa'iba, but the People of the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance used to do so.
حَدَّثَنَا قَبِيصَةُ بْنُ عُقْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ أَبِي قَيْسٍ، عَنْ هُزَيْلٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ إِنَّ أَهْلَ الإِسْلاَمِ لا يُسَيِّبُونَ، وَإِنَّ أَهْلَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ كَانُوا يُسَيِّبُونَ‏.‏
Narrated Asma:
The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to command us to free slaves on the occasion of an eclipse
حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، حَدَّثَنَا زَائِدَةُ، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَتَاقَةِ فِي صَلاَةِ الْكُسُوفِ ‏.‏
Salim narrated from his father that the Prophet (saws) said:
"Whoever frees a portion of a slave he owns, then he can afford the remainder of the price, then he should free him with his wealth."
حَدَّثَنَا بِذَلِكَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْخَلاَّلُ الْحُلْوَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ فَكَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ مَا يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَهُ فَهُوَ عَتِيقٌ مِنْ مَالِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏
Malik said, "Neither a free man nor a slave who divorces a slave- girl nor a slave who divorces a free woman, in an irrevocable divorce, is obliged to pay maintenance even if she is pregnant, and he cannot return to her." Malik said, "A free man is not obliged to pay for the suckling of his son when he is a slave of other people, nor is a slave obliged to spend his money for what his master owns except with the permission of his master."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، قَالَ أَيُّمَا امْرَأَةٍ فَقَدَتْ زَوْجَهَا فَلَمْ تَدْرِ أَيْنَ هُوَ فَإِنَّهَا تَنْتَظِرُ أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ ثُمَّ تَعْتَدُّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا ثُمَّ تَحِلُّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ بَعْدَ انْقِضَاءِ عِدَّتِهَا فَدَخَلَ بِهَا زَوْجُهَا أَوْ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لِزَوْجِهَا الأَوَّلِ إِلَيْهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا وَإِنْ أَدْرَكَهَا زَوْجُهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَتَزَوَّجَ فَهُوَ أَحَقُّ بِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَأَدْرَكْتُ النَّاسَ يُنْكِرُونَ الَّذِي قَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ أَنَّهُ قَالَ يُخَيَّرُ زَوْجُهَا الأَوَّلُ إِذَا جَاءَ فِي صَدَاقِهَا أَوْ فِي امْرَأَتِهِ ‏.‏
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "If somebody manumits a Muslim slave, Allah will save from the Fire every part of his body for freeing the corresponding parts of the slave's body, even his private parts will be saved from the Fire) because of freeing the slave's private parts."
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ، حَدَّثَنَا دَاوُدُ بْنُ رُشَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي غَسَّانَ، مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُطَرِّفٍ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدٍ ابْنِ مَرْجَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً مُسْلِمَةً، أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنَ النَّارِ، حَتَّى فَرْجَهُ بِفَرْجِهِ ‏"‏‏.‏
Narrated Abu Hurairah:
"I heard the Messenger of Allah (saws) saying: 'Whoever frees a believing slave, then Allah frees a limb from the Fire for each of his limbs, such that he frees his private parts in lieu of his private parts.'"
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْهَادِ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ ابْنِ مَرْجَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً مُؤْمِنَةً أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنَ النَّارِ حَتَّى يُعْتِقَ فَرْجَهُ بِفَرْجِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ وَعَمْرِو بْنِ عَبَسَةَ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَوَاثِلَةَ بْنِ الأَسْقَعِ وَأَبِي أُمَامَةَ وَعُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ وَكَعْبِ بْنِ مُرَّةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ ‏.‏ وَابْنُ الْهَادِ اسْمُهُ يَزِيدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ الْهَادِ وَهُوَ مَدَنِيٌّ ثِقَةٌ قَدْ رَوَى عَنْهُ مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ ‏.‏
Al-Bara' said, "A bedouin came and said, 'Prophet of Allah! Teach me an action which will enable me to enter the Garden.' He said, "The question is a broad one, even though you have asked it in only a few words. Free someone. Set a slave free.' He said, 'Are they not the same thing?' 'No,' he replied, 'Freeing someone is setting someone free yourself. Setting a slave free is to contribute to the price of setting him free. Lend an animal for milking which has a lot of milk and treat your relatives kindly. If you cannot do that, then command the good and forbid the bad. If you cannot do that, then restrain your tongue from everything except what is good."

حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْسَجَةَ، عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ قَالَ‏:‏ جَاءَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ فَقَالَ‏:‏ يَا نَبِيَّ اللهِ، عَلِّمْنِي عَمَلاً يُدْخِلُنِي الْجَنَّةَ، قَالَ‏:‏ لَئِنْ كُنْتَ أَقَصَرْتَ الْخُطْبَةَ لَقَدْ أَعْرَضْتَ الْمَسْأَلَةَ، أَعْتِقِ النَّسَمَةَ، وَفُكَّ الرَّقَبَةَ قَالَ‏:‏ أَوَ لَيْسَتَا وَاحِدًا‏؟‏ قَالَ‏:‏ لاَ، عِتْقُ النَّسَمَةِ أَنْ تَعْتِقَ النَّسَمَةَ، وَفَكُّ الرَّقَبَةِ أَنْ تُعِينَ عَلَى الرَّقَبَةِ، وَالْمَنِيحَةُ الرَّغُوبُ، وَالْفَيْءُ عَلَى ذِي الرَّحِمِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تُطِقْ ذَلِكَ، فَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ، وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تُطِقْ ذَلِكَ، فَكُفَّ لِسَانَكَ إِلاَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ‏.‏
It was narrated from'Abdullah bin 'Umar that 'Aishah wanted to but a slave woman to set her free, but her people said:
"We will sell her to you on condition that her loyalty (Walla) is to us," She mentioned that top the Messenger of Allah and he said: "That should not stop you. Loyalty belongs to the one who sets the slave free."
أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ، جَارِيَةً تَعْتِقُهَا فَقَالَ أَهْلُهَا نَبِيعُكِهَا عَلَى أَنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لَنَا ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَمْنَعُكِ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Salim, from his father, that the Messenger of Allah said:
"Whoever sets free his share of a slave should set him free completely from his own wealth, if he has enough wealth to cover the price of the slave."
أَخْبَرَنَا نُوحُ بْنُ حَبِيبٍ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ أُتِمَّ مَا بَقِيَ فِي مَالِهِ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَ الْعَبْدِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Sa'd bin 'Ubadah that he came to the Prophet and said:
"My mother has died and she had a vow to fulfill. Will it suffice if I free a slave on her behalf?" He said: "Free a slave on behalf of your mother."
أَخْبَرَنِي هَارُونُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَفَّانُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ عُبَادَةَ، أَنَّهُ أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ إِنَّ أُمِّي مَاتَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا نَذْرٌ أَفَيُجْزِئُ عَنْهَا أَنْ أَعْتِقَ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏ "‏ أَعْتِقْ عَنْ أُمِّكَ ‏"‏‏.‏
It was nanated from 'Amr bin Shu'aib, from his father, from his grandfather, that:
the Prophet (SAW) said: "There are four kinds of women for whom there is no Li'an: a Christian woman married to a Muslim, a Jewish woman married to a Muslim, a free woman married to a slave, and a slave woman married to a free man."
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا حَيْوَةُ بْنُ شُرَيْحٍ الْحَضْرَمِيُّ، عَنْ ضَمْرَةَ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ ‏ "‏ أَرْبَعٌ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ لاَ مُلاَعَنَةَ بَيْنَهُنَّ النَّصْرَانِيَّةُ تَحْتَ الْمُسْلِمِ وَالْيَهُودِيَّةُ تَحْتَ الْمُسْلِمِ وَالْحُرَّةُ تَحْتَ الْمَمْلُوكِ وَالْمَمْلُوكَةُ تَحْتَ الْحُرِّ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from 'Imran bin Husain that :
a man had six slaves, and he did not have any other wealth apart from them, and he set them free when he died. The Messenger of Allah (SAW) divided them into groups, set two free and left four as slaves.
حَدَّثَنَا نَصْرُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْجَهْضَمِيُّ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ الْحَذَّاءُ، عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الْمُهَلَّبِ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، كَانَ لَهُ سِتَّةُ مَمْلُوكِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُمْ فَأَعْتَقَهُمْ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ فَجَزَّأَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَأَعْتَقَ اثْنَيْنِ وَأَرَقَّ أَرْبَعَةً ‏.‏
It was narrated that :
`Aishah had a male slave and a female slave who were married. She said: “O Messenger of Allah (SAW), I want to free them both.” The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “If you free them, then start with the man before the woman.”
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ مَسْعَدَةَ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَلَفٍ الْعَسْقَلاَنِيُّ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَجِيدِ، حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا كَانَ لَهَا غُلاَمٌ وَجَارِيَةٌ زَوْجٌ فَقَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُعْتِقَهُمَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِنْ أَعْتَقْتِهِمَا فَابْدَئِي بِالرَّجُلِ قَبْلَ الْمَرْأَةِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said:
"The Messenger of Allah enjoined Sadaqatul Fitr upon young and old, male and female, free and slave; a Sa' of dates or a Sa' of barley,"
أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا عِيسَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ عَلَى الصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى وَالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said:
"The Messenger of Allah enjoined the Zakah of Ramadan on everyone, young and old, free and slave, male and female, a Sa of dates or a Sa of barley."
أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ صَغِيرٍ وَكَبِيرٍ حُرٍّ وَعَبْدٍ وَذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Hisham, from Qatadah, from Al-Hasan, who said:
"A free man should not be subjected to retaliation in return for a slave."
حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، قَالَ لاَ يُقَادُ الْحُرُّ بِالْعَبْدِ ‏.‏
It was narrated that:
Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah enjoined Sadaqatul-Fitr, one Sa, of barley or one Sa of dates for every Muslim, free or slave, male or female.”
حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ عَلَى كُلِّ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏
'Ali said, "I prefer to have a group of my brothers join around a sa' or two of food to going out to the market and setting a slave free."

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ أَبُو الرَّبِيعِ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ، عَنْ لَيْثٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ نَشْرٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ قَالَ‏:‏ لأَنْ أَجْمَعَ نَفَرًا مِنْ إِخْوَانِي عَلَى صَاعٍ أَوْ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ طَعَامٍ، أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أَخْرُجَ إِلَى سُوقِكُمْ فَأُعْتِقَ رَقَبَةً‏.‏
It was narrated from Ibn`Umar that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“Whoever frees a slave who has some wealth, the slave's wealth belongs to him, unless the master stipulates that it will belong to him.”
حَدَّثَنَا حَرْمَلَةُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ لَهِيعَةَ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، أَنْبَأَنَا اللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، جَمِيعًا عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ الأَشَجِّ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ عَبْدًا وَلَهُ مَالٌ فَمَالُ الْعَبْدِ لَهُ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطَ السَّيِّدُ مَالَهُ فَيَكُونَ لَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ابْنُ لَهِيعَةَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَسْتَثْنِيَهُ السَّيِّدُ ‏.‏
Malik related to me that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar was asked whether a slave could be bought on the specific condition that it was to be used to fulfil the obligation of freeing a slave, and he said, "No." Malik said, "That is the best of what I have heard on the obligation of freeing slaves. Someone who has to set a slave free because of an obligation on him, may not buy one on the condition that he sets it free because if he does that, whatever he buys is not completely a slave because he has reduced its price by the condition he has made of setting it free." Malik added, "There is no harm, however, in someone buying a person expressly to set him free." Malik said, "The best of what I have heard on the obligation of freeing slaves is that it is not permitted to free a christian or a jew to fulfil it, and one does not free a mukatab or a mudabbar or an umm walad or a slave to be freed after a certain number of years, or a blind person. There is no harm in freeing a christian, jew, or magian voluntarily, because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'either as a favour then or by ransom,' (Sura 47 ayat 4) The favour is setting free." Malik said, "As for obligations of freeing slaves which Allah has mentioned in the Book, one only frees a mumin slave for them." Malik said, "It is like that in feeding poor people for kaffara. One must only feed muslims and one does not feed anyone outside of the deen of Islam."

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، سُئِلَ عَنِ الرَّقَبَةِ الْوَاجِبَةِ، هَلْ تُشْتَرَى بِشَرْطٍ فَقَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي الرِّقَابِ الْوَاجِبَةِ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَشْتَرِيهَا الَّذِي يُعْتِقُهَا فِيمَا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ بِشَرْطٍ عَلَى أَنْ يُعْتِقَهَا لأَنَّهُ إِذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَتْ بِرَقَبَةٍ تَامَّةٍ لأَنَّهُ يَضَعُ مِنْ ثَمَنِهَا لِلَّذِي يَشْتَرِطُ مِنْ عِتْقِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ الرَّقَبَةَ فِي التَّطَوُّعِ وَيَشْتَرِطَ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِنَّ أَحْسَنَ مَا سُمِعَ فِي الرِّقَابِ الْوَاجِبَةِ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُعْتَقَ فِيهَا نَصْرَانِيٌّ وَلاَ يَهُودِيٌّ وَلاَ يُعْتَقُ فِيهَا مُكَاتَبٌ وَلاَ مُدَبَّرٌ وَلاَ أُمُّ وَلَدٍ وَلاَ مُعْتَقٌ إِلَى سِنِينَ وَلاَ أَعْمَى وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُعْتَقَ النَّصْرَانِيُّ وَالْيَهُودِيُّ وَالْمَجُوسِيُّ تَطَوُّعًا لأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً‏}‏ فَالْمَنُّ الْعَتَاقَةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَأَمَّا الرِّقَابُ الْوَاجِبَةُ الَّتِي ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ فِي الْكِتَابِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُعْتَقُ فِيهَا إِلاَّ رَقَبَةٌ مُؤْمِنَةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ فِي إِطْعَامِ الْمَسَاكِينِ فِي الْكَفَّارَاتِ لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُطْعَمَ فِيهَا إِلاَّ الْمُسْلِمُونَ ...
Malik said, "What is done among us when a slave divorces a slave- girl when she is a slave and then she is set free, is that her idda is the idda of a slave-girl, and her being set free does not change her idda whether or not he can still return to her. Her idda is not altered." Malik added, "The hadd-punishment which a slave incurs is the same as this. When he is freed after he has incurred but before the punishment has been executed, his hadd is the hadd of the slave." Malik said, "When a free man divorces a slave-girl three times, her idda is two periods. When a slave divorces a free woman twice, her idda is three periods." Malik said about a man who had a slave-girl as a wife, and he bought her and set her free, ''Her idda is the idda of a slave-girl, i.e. two periods, as long as he has not had intercourse with her. If he has had intercourse with her after buying her and before he set her free, she only has to wait until one period has passed . "

It was narrated that Al-Qasim bin Muhammad said:
"Aishah had a male slave and a female slave. She said: 'I wanted to set them free, and I mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah. He said: Start with the male slave before the female slave.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ مَسْعَدَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ مَوْهَبٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ كَانَ لِعَائِشَةَ غُلاَمٌ وَجَارِيَةٌ قَالَتْ فَأَرَدْتُ أَنْ أُعْتِقَهُمَا فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ ابْدَئِي بِالْغُلاَمِ قَبْلَ الْجَارِيَةِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab, and he had heard from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad that they said, "When a free man marries a slave-girl and consummates the marriage, she makes him muhsan." Malik said, "All (of the people of knowledge) I have seen said that a slave-girl makes a free man muhsan when he marries her and consummates the marriage." Malik said, "A slave makes a free woman muhsana when he consummates a marriage with her and a free woman only makes a slave muhsan when he is freed and he is her husband and has had sexual relations with her after he has been set free. If he parts from her before he is free, he is not a muhsan unless he marries her after having been set free and he consummates the marriage." Malik said, "When a slave-girl is married to a free man and then he separates from her before she is set free, his marriage to her does not make her muhsana. She is not muhsana until she has married after she has been set free and she has had intercourse with her husband. That gives her ihsan. If she is the wife of a freeman and then she is set free while she is his wife before he separates from her, the man makes her muhsana if he has intercourse with her after she has been set free." Malik said, "The christian and jewish free women and the muslim slave-girl all make a muslim free man muhsan when he marries one of them and has intercourse with her."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، وَبَلَغَهُ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، أَنَّهُمَا كَانَا يَقُولاَنِ إِذَا نَكَحَ الْحُرُّ الأَمَةَ فَمَسَّهَا فَقَدْ أَحْصَنَتْهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكُلُّ مَنْ أَدْرَكْتُ كَانَ يَقُولُ ذَلِكَ تُحْصِنُ الأَمَةُ الْحُرَّ إِذَا نَكَحَهَا فَمَسَّهَا فَقَدْ أَحْصَنَتْهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ يُحْصِنُ الْعَبْدُ الْحُرَّةَ إِذَا مَسَّهَا بِنِكَاحٍ وَلاَ تُحْصِنُ الْحُرَّةُ الْعَبْدَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَعْتِقَ وَهُوَ زَوْجُهَا فَيَمَسَّهَا بَعْدَ عِتْقِهِ فَإِنْ فَارَقَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَعْتِقَ فَلَيْسَ بِمُحْصَنٍ حَتَّى يَتَزَوَّجَ بَعْدَ عِتْقِهِ وَيَمَسَّ امْرَأَتَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمَةُ إِذَا كَانَتْ تَحْتَ الْحُرِّ ثُمَّ فَارَقَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَعْتِقَ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُحْصِنُهَا نِكَاحُهُ إِيَّاهَا وَهِيَ أَمَةٌ حَتَّى تُنْكَحَ بَعْدَ عِتْقِهَا وَيُصِيبَهَا زَوْجُهَا فَذَلِكَ إِحْصَانُهَا وَالأَمَةُ إِذَا كَانَتْ تَحْتَ الْحُرِّ فَتَعْتِقُ وَهِيَ تَحْتَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُفَارِقَهَا فَإِنَّهُ يُحْصِنُهَا إِذَا عَتَقَتْ وَهِيَ عِنْدَهُ إِذَا هُوَ أَصَابَهَا بَعْدَ أَنْ تَعْتِقَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالْحُرَّةُ النَّصْرَانِيَّةُ وَالْيَهُودِيَّةُ وَالأَمَةُ الْمُسْلِمَةُ يُحْصِنَّ الْحُرَّ الْمُسْلِمَ إِذَا نَكَحَ إِحْدَاهُنَّ فَأَصَابَهَا ‏.‏
It was narrated from 'Aishah that:
she wanted to buy Barirah and set her free, but they stipulated that her loyally as a freed slave (wala') should be to them. She mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah and he said: "Buy her and set her fee, and loyally is due to the one who frees the slave." She was given the choice when she was freed. Some meat was brought to the Messenger of Allah and it was said: "This is something that is given in charity to Barirah." He said: "It is charity for her and gift for us." And her husband was a free man.
أَخْبَرَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ يَزِيدَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا بَهْزُ بْنُ أَسَدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا الْحَكَمُ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ، بَرِيرَةَ فَتَعْتِقَهَا وَأَنَّهُمُ اشْتَرَطُوا وَلاَءَهَا فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ اشْتَرِيهَا وَاعْتِقِيهَا فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَخُيِّرَتْ حِينَ أُعْتِقَتْ وَأُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِلَحْمٍ فَقِيلَ هَذَا مِمَّا تُصُدِّقَ بِهِ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ هُوَ لَهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَلَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَكَانَ زَوْجُهَا حُرًّا ‏.‏
Malik said, "A master who frees a slave of his and settles his emancipation so that his testimony is permitted, his inviolability complete, and his right to inherit confirmed, cannot impose stipulations on him like what he imposes on a slave about property or service, nor get him to do anything of slavery, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If a man frees his share of a slave and has enough money to cover the full price of the slave justly evaluated for him, he must give his partners their shares so the slave is completely free." Malik commented, "If he owns the slave completely, it is more proper to free him completely and not mingle any slavery with it."

Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "Whoever frees his portion of a common slave should free the slave completely by paying the rest of his price from his money if he has enough money; otherwise the price of the slave is to be estimated and the slave is to be helped to work without hardship till he pays the rest of his price."
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ بَشِيرِ بْنِ نَهِيكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا أَوْ شَقِيصًا فِي مَمْلُوكٍ، فَخَلاَصُهُ عَلَيْهِ فِي مَالِهِ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ، وَإِلاَّ قُوِّمَ عَلَيْهِ، فَاسْتُسْعِيَ بِهِ غَيْرَ مَشْقُوقٍ عَلَيْهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ حَجَّاجُ بْنُ حَجَّاجٍ وَأَبَانُ وَمُوسَى بْنُ خَلَفٍ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ‏.‏ اخْتَصَرَهُ شُعْبَةُ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Rabia ibn Abd ar-Rahman that az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam bought a slave and set him free. The slave had children by a free woman. When az-Zubayr freed him, he said, "They are my mawali." The man argued, "They are the mawali of their mother. Rather, they are our mawali." They took the dispute to Uthman ibn Affan, and Uthman gave a judgement that az-Zubayr had their wala'.

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، ‏.‏ أَنَّ الزُّبَيْرَ بْنَ الْعَوَّامِ، اشْتَرَى عَبْدًا فَأَعْتَقَهُ وَلِذَلِكَ الْعَبْدِ بَنُونَ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ فَلَمَّا أَعْتَقَهُ الزُّبَيْرُ قَالَ هُمْ مَوَالِيَّ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَوَالِي أُمِّهِمْ بَلْ هُمْ مَوَالِينَا ‏.‏ فَاخْتَصَمُوا إِلَى عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ فَقَضَى عُثْمَانُ لِلزُّبَيْرِ بِوَلاَئِهِمْ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Ishaq bin Ibrahim, from his grandfather 'Umair, who was the freed slave of Ibn Mas'ud, that `Abdullah said to him:
“O Umair, I have set you free in a good way. I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say: 'Any man who frees a slave and does not say anything about his (the slave's) wealth, it belongs to him (the slave).' So tell me, how much wealth do you have?”
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْجَرْمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الْمُطَّلِبُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ، عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، عُمَيْرٍ - وَهُوَ مَوْلَى ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ - أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ لَهُ يَا عُمَيْرُ إِنِّي أُعْتِقُكَ عِتْقًا هَنِيئًا إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ أَعْتَقَ غُلاَمًا وَلَمْ يُسَمِّ مَالَهُ فَالْمَالُ لَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَخْبِرْنِي مَا مَالُكَ ‏.‏
Malik related to me that he had heard that al-Maqburi said that Abu Hurayra was asked whether a man who had to free a slave, could free an illegitimate child to fulfil that obligation. Abu Hurayra said, "Yes. That will give satisfaction for him."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنِ الْمَقْبُرِيِّ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سُئِلَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ، تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ رَقَبَةٌ هَلْ يُعْتِقُ فِيهَا ابْنَ زِنًا فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ نَعَمْ ذَلِكَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me that Malik said, "What is done in our community in the case of a man who makes his slave-girl a mudabbara and she gives birth to children after that, and then the slave-girl dies before the one who gave her a tadbir is that her children are in her position. The conditions which were confirmed for her are confirmed for them. The death of their mother does not harm them. If the one who made her mudabbara dies, they are free if their value is less than one third of his total property." Malik said, "For every mother by birth as opposed to mother by suckling, her children are in her position. If she is free and she gives birth after she is free, her children are free. If she is a mudabbara or mukataba, or freed after a number of years in service, or part of her is free or pledged or she is an umm walad, each of her children are in the same position as their mother. They are set free when she is set free and they are slaves when she is a slave." Malik said about the mudabbara given a tadbir while she was pregnant, "Her children are in her position. That is also the position of a man who frees his slave- girl while she is pregnant and does not know that she is pregnant." Malik said, "The sunna about such women is that their children follow them and are set free by their being set free." Malik said, "It is the same as if a man had bought a slave-girl while she was pregnant. The slave-girl and what is in her womb belong to the one who bought her whether or not the buyer stipulates that." Malik continued, "It is not halal for the seller to make an exception about what is in her womb because that is an uncertain transaction. It reduces her price and he does not know if that will reach him or not. That is as if one sold the foetus in the womb of the mother. That is not halal because it is an uncertain transaction ." Malik said about the mukatab or mudabbar who bought a slave- girl and had intercourse with her and she became pregnant by him and gives birth, "The children of both of them by a slave-girl are in his position. They are set free when he is set free and they are slaves when he is a slave." Malik said, "When he is set free, the umm walad is part of his property which is surrendered to him when he is set free."

Humaid b. 'Abd al-Rahman reported that Abu Huraira had narrated to him that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded the person (who) broke the fast in Ramadan to free a slave or observe fasts for two (consecutive) months or feed sixty poor persons.

حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ، حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَمَرَ رَجُلاً أَفْطَرَ فِي رَمَضَانَ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ رَقَبَةً أَوْ يَصُومَ شَهْرَيْنِ أَوْ يُطْعِمَ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا ‏.‏
Narrated Qais:
When Abu Huraira accompanied by his slave came intending to embrace Islam, they lost each other on the way. (When the slave showed up) Abu Huraira said (to the Prophet), "I make you witness that the slave is free for Allah's Cause."
حَدَّثَنَا شِهَابُ بْنُ عَبَّادٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ قَيْسٍ، قَالَ لَمَّا أَقْبَلَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ وَمَعَهُ غُلاَمُهُ وَهْوَ يَطْلُبُ الإِسْلاَمَ، فَأَضَلَّ أَحَدُهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ بِهَذَا، وَقَالَ أَمَا إِنِّي أُشْهِدُكَ أَنَّهُ لِلَّهِ‏.‏
Narrated Abu Huraira:
I heard Abu-l-Qasim (the Prophet) saying, "If somebody slanders his slave and the slave is free from what he says, he will be flogged on the Day of Resurrection unless the slave is really as he has described him."
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ غَزْوَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نُعْمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْقَاسِمِ، صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ قَذَفَ مَمْلُوكَهُ وَهْوَ بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا قَالَ، جُلِدَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ كَمَا قَالَ ‏"‏‏.‏
Narrated Jabir:
The Prophet came to know that one of his companions had given the promise of freeing his slave after his death, but as he had no other property than that slave, the Prophet sold that slave for 800 dirhams and sent the price to him.
حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ نُمَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بِشْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، حَدَّثَنَا سَلَمَةُ بْنُ كُهَيْلٍ، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ بَلَغَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ رَجُلاً مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ أَعْتَقَ غُلاَمًا عَنْ دُبُرٍ، لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرَهُ، فَبَاعَهُ بِثَمَانِمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ بِثَمَنِهِ إِلَيْهِ‏.‏
Jabir b. 'Abd Allah said:
A man declared that his slave would be free after his death, but he had no other property. So the Prophet (saws) ordered (to sell him). He was then sold for seven hundred or nine hundred (dirhams).
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ أَبِي سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي خَالِدٍ، عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ كُهَيْلٍ، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، أَعْتَقَ غُلاَمًا لَهُ عَنْ دُبُرٍ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُ فَأَمَرَ بِهِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَبِيعَ بِسَبْعِمِائَةٍ أَوْ بِتِسْعِمِائَةٍ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me the like of that from Malik from Ibn Shihab. Malik said, about a slave who divorced a slave-girl but did not make it absolute, "He can return to her. If he then dies while she is still in the idda from her divorce, she does the idda of a slave- girl whose husband dies, and it is two months and five days. If she has been set free and he can return to her, and she does not choose to separate after she has been set free, and he dies while she is in the idda from the divorce, she does the idda of a free woman whose husband has died, four months and ten days. That is because the idda of widowhood befell her while she was free, so her idda is the idda of a free woman." Malik said, "That is what is done among us."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْعَبْدِ يُطَلِّقُ الأَمَةَ طَلاَقًا لَمْ يَبُتَّهَا فِيهِ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا فِيهِ الرَّجْعَةُ ثُمَّ يَمُوتُ وَهِيَ فِي عِدَّتِهَا مِنْ طَلاَقِهِ إِنَّهَا تَعْتَدُّ عِدَّةَ الأَمَةِ الْمُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا شَهْرَيْنِ وَخَمْسَ لَيَالٍ وَإِنَّهَا إِنْ عَتَقَتْ وَلَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ ثُمَّ لَمْ تَخْتَرْ فِرَاقَهُ بَعْدَ الْعِتْقِ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ وَهِيَ فِي عِدَّتِهَا مِنْ طَلاَقِهِ اعْتَدَّتْ عِدَّةَ الْحُرَّةِ الْمُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهَا إِنَّمَا وَقَعَتْ عَلَيْهَا عِدَّةُ الْوَفَاةِ بَعْدَ مَا عَتَقَتْ فَعِدَّتُهَا عِدَّةُ الْحُرَّةِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏
Malik said, "When a mukatab sets his own slaves free, it is only permitted for a mukatab to set his own slaves free with the consent of his master. If his master gives his consent and the mukatab sets his slave free, his wala' goes to the mukatab . If the mukatab then dies before he has been set free himself, the wala' of the freed slave goes to the master of the mukatab. If the freed one dies before the mukatab has been set free, the master of the mukatab inherits from him." Malik said, "It is like that also when a mukatab gives his slave a kitaba and his mukatab is set free before he is himself. The wala' goes to the master of the mukatab as long as he is not free. If this one who wrote the kitaba is set free, then the wala' of his mukatab who was freed before him reverts to him. If the first mukatab dies before he pays, or he cannot pay his kitaba and he has free children, they do not inherit the wala' of their father's mukatab because the wala' has not been established for their father and he does not have the wala' until he is free." Malik spoke about a mukatab who was shared between two men and one of them forewent what the mukatab owed him and the other insisted on his due. Then the mukatab died and left property. Malik said, "The one who did not abandon any of what he was owed, is paid in full. Then the property is divided between them both just as if a slave had died because what the first one did was not setting him free. He only abandoned a debt that was owed to him ." Malik said, "One clarification of that is that when a man dies and leaves a mukatab and he also leaves male and female children and one of the children frees his portion of the mukatab, that does not establish any of the wala' for him. Had it been a true setting free, the wala' would have been established for whichever men and women freed him." Malik said, "Another clarification of that is that if one of them freed his portion and then the mukatab could not pay, the value of what was left of the mukatab would be altered because of the one who freed his portion. Had it been a true setting-free, his estimated value would have been taken from the property of the one who set free until he had been set completely free as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever frees his share in a slave and has money to cover the full price of the slave, justly evaluated for him, gives his partners their shares. If not, he frees of him what he frees.' " (See Book 37 hadith 1). He said, "Another clarification of that is that part of the sunna of the muslims in which there is no dispute, is that whoever frees his share of a mukatab, the mukatab is not set fully free using his property. Had he been truly set free, the wala' would have been his alone rather than his partners. Part of what will clarify that also is that part of the sunna of the muslims is that the wala' belongs to whoever writes the contract of kitaba. The women who inherit from the master of the mukatab do not have any of the wala' of the mukatab. If they free any of their share, the wala' belongs to the male children of the master of the mukatab or his male paternal relations."

Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things among us in the case of slave whose master makes a bequest to free part of him - a third, a fourth, a half, or any share after his death, is that only the portion of him is freed that his master has named. This is because the freeing of that portion is only obliged to take place after the death of the master because the master has the option to withdraw the bequest as long as he lives. When the slave is freed from his master, the master is a testator and the testator only has access to free what he can take from his property, being the third of the property he is allowed to bequeath, and the rest of the slave is not free because the man's property has gone out of his hands. How can the rest of the slave which belongs to other people be free when they did not initiate the setting free and did not confirm it and they do not have the wala' established for them? Only the deceased could do that. He was the one who freed him and the one for whom the wala' was confirmed. That is not to be borne by another's property unless he bequeaths within the third of his property what remains of a lave to be freed. That is a request against his partners and inheritors and the partners must not refuse the slave that when it is within the third of the dead man's property because there is no harm in that to the inheritors." Malik said, "If a man frees a third of his slave while he is critically ill, he must complete the emancipation so all of him is free from him, if it is within the third of his property that he has access to, because he is not treated in the same way as a man who frees a third of a slave after his death, because had the one who freed a third of his slave after his death lived, he could have cancelled it and the slave's being set free would be of no effect. The master who made the freeing of the third of the slave irrevocable in his illness, would still have to free all of him if he lived. If he died, the slave would be set free within the third of the bequest. That is because the command of the deceased is permissible in his third as the command of the healthy is permissible in all his property."

Malik related to me that he had heard that Said ibn al-Musayyab was asked who had the wala' of the children whom a slave had by a free woman. Said said, "If their father dies and he is a slave who was not set free, their wala' belongs to the mawali of their mother." Malik said, "That is like the child of a woman who is a mawla who has been divorced by lian; the child is attached to the mawali of his mother and they are his mawali. If he dies, they inherit from him. If he commits a crime, they pay the blood-money for him. If his father acknowledges him, he is given a kinship to him and his wala' goes to the mawali of his father. They are his heirs, they pay his blood-money and his father is punished with the hadd-punishment." Malik said, "It is like that with a free-born woman divorced by lian. If her husband who curses her by lian does not acknowledge her child, the child is dealt with in the same way except that the rest of his inheritance after the inheritance of his mother and his brothers from his mother goes to all the muslims as long as he was not given kinship to his father. The child of the lian is attached to the patronage of the mawali of his mother until his father acknowledges him because he does not have a lineage or paternal relations. If his lineage is confirmed, it goes to his paternal relations." Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things among us about a child of a slave by a free woman, while the father of the slave is free, is that the grandfather (the father of the slave), attracts the wala' of his son's free children by a free woman. They leave their inheritance to him as long as their father is a slave. If the father becomes free, the wala' returns to his mawali. If he dies and he is still a slave, the inheritance and the wala' go to the grandfather. If the slave has two free sons, and one of them dies while the father is still a slave, the grandfather, the father of the father, attracts the wala' and the inheritance." Malik spoke about a slave-girl who was set free while she was pregnant and her husband was a slave and then her husband became free before she gave birth, or after she gave birth. He said, "The wala' of what is in her womb goes to the person who set the mother free because slavery touched the child before the mother was set free. It is not treated in the same way as a child conceived by its mother after she has been set free because the wala' of such a child, is attracted by the father when he is set free." Malik said that if a slave asked his master's permission to free a slave of his and his master gave permission, the wala' of the freed slave went to the master of his master, and his wala' did not return to the master who had set him free, even if he were to become free himself."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، سُئِلَ عَنْ عَبْدٍ لَهُ، وَلَدٌ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ لِمَنْ وَلاَؤُهُمْ فَقَالَ سَعِيدٌ إِنْ مَاتَ أَبُوهُمْ وَهُوَ عَبْدٌ لَمْ يُعْتَقْ فَوَلاَؤُهُمْ لِمَوَالِي أُمِّهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَثَلُ ذَلِكَ وَلَدُ الْمُلاَعَنَةِ مِنَ الْمَوَالِي يُنْسَبُ إِلَى مَوَالِي أُمِّهِ فَيَكُونُونَ هُمْ مَوَالِيَهُ إِنْ مَاتَ وَرِثُوهُ وَإِنْ جَرَّ جَرِيرَةً عَقَلُوا عَنْهُ فَإِنِ اعْتَرَفَ بِهِ أَبُوهُ أُلْحِقَ بِهِ وَصَارَ وَلاَؤُهُ إِلَى مَوَالِي أَبِيهِ وَكَانَ مِيرَاثُهُ لَهُمْ وَعَقْلُهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيُجْلَدُ أَبُوهُ الْحَدَّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمَرْأَةُ الْمُلاَعِنَةُ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ إِذَا اعْتَرَفَ زَوْجُهَا الَّذِي لاَعَنَهَا بِوَلَدِهَا صَارَ بِمِثْلِ هَذِهِ الْمَنْزِلَةِ إِلاَّ أَنَّ بَقِيَّةَ مِيرَاثِهِ بَعْدَ مِيرَاثِ أُمِّهِ وَإِخْوَتِهِ لأُمِّهِ لِعَامَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مَا لَمْ يُلْحَقْ بِأَبِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا وَرَّثَ وَلَدُ الْمُلاَعَنَةِ الْمُوَالاَةَ مَوَالِيَ أُمِّهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَعْتَرِفَ بِهِ أَبُوهُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ نَسَبٌ وَلاَ عَصَبَةٌ فَلَمَّا ثَبَتَ نَسَبُهُ صَارَ إِلَى عَصَبَتِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا فِي وَلَدِ الْعَبْدِ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ وَأَبُو الْعَبْدِ حُرٌّ أَنَّ الْجَدَّ أَبَا الْعَبْدِ يَجُرُّ وَلاَءَ وَلَدِ ابْنِهِ الأَحْرَارِ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ ...
Narrated `Abdullah bin `Umar:
Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever frees his share of a common slave and he has sufficient money to free him completely, should let its price be estimated by a just man and give his partners the price of their shares and manumit the slave; otherwise (i.e. if he has not sufficient money) he manumits the slave partially."
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ، فَكَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَ الْعَبْدِ قُوِّمَ الْعَبْدُ قِيمَةَ عَدْلٍ، فَأَعْطَى شُرَكَاءَهُ حِصَصَهُمْ وَعَتَقَ عَلَيْهِ، وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ ‏"‏‏.‏
Narrated Ibn `Umar:
The Prophet said, "He who manumits his share of a slave and has money sufficient to free the remaining portion of that slave's price (justly estimated) then he should manumit him (by giving the rest of his price to the other co-owners)." Nafi` added, "Otherwise the slave is partially free." Aiyub is not sure whether the last statement was said by Nafi` or it was a part of the Hadith.
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا لَهُ فِي مَمْلُوكٍ أَوْ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ، وَكَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ مَا يَبْلُغُ قِيمَتَهُ بِقِيمَةِ الْعَدْلِ، فَهْوَ عَتِيقٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ نَافِعٌ وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ‏.‏ قَالَ أَيُّوبُ لاَ أَدْرِي أَشَىْءٌ قَالَهُ نَافِعٌ، أَوْ شَىْءٌ فِي الْحَدِيثِ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "When the slave divorces his wife twice, she is haram for him until she has married another husband, whether she is free or a slave. The idda of a free woman is three menstrual periods, and the idda of a slave-girl is two periods.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَ يَقُولُ إِذَا طَلَّقَ الْعَبْدُ امْرَأَتَهُ تَطْلِيقَتَيْنِ فَقَدْ حَرُمَتْ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ حُرَّةً كَانَتْ أَوْ أَمَةً وَعِدَّةُ الْحُرَّةِ ثَلاَثُ حِيَضٍ وَعِدَّةُ الأَمَةِ حَيْضَتَانِ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "If a man frees his share of a slave and has enough money to cover the full price of the slave justly evaluated for him, he must buy out his partners so that the slave is completely freed. If he doesn't have the money, he partially frees him.

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ فَكَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَ الْعَبْدِ قُوِّمَ عَلَيْهِ قِيمَةَ الْعَدْلِ فَأَعْطَى شُرَكَاءَهُ حِصَصَهُمْ وَعَتَقَ عَلَيْهِ الْعَبْدُ وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated Ibn `Umar:
Allah's Apostle made it incumbent on all the slave or free Muslims, male or female, to pay one Sa' of dates or barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr.
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ، عَلَى كُلِّ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ، ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى، مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ‏.‏
Narrated Ibn `Umar:
Allah's Apostle has made Sadaqat-ul-Fitr obligatory, (and it was), either one Sa' of barley or one Sa' of dates (and its payment was obligatory) on young and old people, and on free men as well as on slaves.
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي نَافِعٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ، أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ عَلَى الصَّغِيرِ وَالْكَبِيرِ وَالْحُرِّ وَالْمَمْلُوكِ‏.‏
Narrated Nafi`:
Ibn `Umar used to send his Hadi from Jam' (to Mina) in the last third of the night with the pilgrims amongst whom there were free men and slaves, till it was taken into the Manhar (slaughtering place) of the Prophet .
حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَنَسُ بْنُ عِيَاضٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ عُقْبَةَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ كَانَ يَبْعَثُ بِهَدْيِهِ مِنْ جَمْعٍ مِنْ آخِرِ اللَّيْلِ، حَتَّى يُدْخَلَ بِهِ مَنْحَرُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَعَ حُجَّاجٍ فِيهِمُ الْحُرُّ وَالْمَمْلُوكُ‏.‏
Ibn Umar narrated:
"The Messenger of Allah made Sadaqatul-Fitr of Ramadan an obligation - a Sa of dried dates or a Sa of barley - required upon every free person and slave, male and female among the Muslims."
حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مُوسَى الأَنْصَارِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مَعْنٌ، حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى كُلِّ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ ابْنِ عُمَرَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى مَالِكٌ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَحْوَ حَدِيثِ أَيُّوبَ وَزَادَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ وَرَوَاهُ غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ نَافِعٍ وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ وَاخْتَلَفَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ فِي هَذَا فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِذَا كَانَ لِلرَّجُلِ عَبِيدٌ غَيْرُ مُسْلِمِينَ لَمْ يُؤَدِّ عَنْهُمْ صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ ‏.‏ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ مَالِكٍ وَالشَّافِعِيِّ وَأَحْمَدَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ يُؤَدِّي عَنْهُمْ وَإِنْ كَانُوا غَيْرَ مُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الثَّوْرِيِّ وَابْنِ الْمُبَارَكِ وَإِسْحَاقَ ‏.‏
Aishah narrated:
“Barfah’s husband was a slave, so the Messenger of Allah let her chose, and she chose herself, and if he was a free man she would not have had a choice.”
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ زَوْجُ بَرِيرَةَ عَبْدًا فَخَيَّرَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاخْتَارَتْ نَفْسَهَا وَلَوْ كَانَ حُرًّا لَمْ يُخَيِّرْهَا ‏.‏
Abu Hurairah narrated that:
the Messenger of Allah said: "A son could not do enough for his father, unless he found him as a slave and purchased him to set him free."
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُوسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ لاَ يَجْزِي وَلَدٌ وَالِدًا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَجِدَهُ مَمْلُوكًا فَيَشْتَرِيَهُ فَيُعْتِقَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رَوَى سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ ‏.‏
Al-Bara bin Azib narrated that the Messenger of Allah said :
"Whoever gives someone some milk or silver, or guides him through a strait, then he will have the reward similar to freeing a slave."
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كُرَيْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ بْنِ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ مُصَرِّفٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ عَوْسَجَةَ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ الْبَرَاءَ بْنَ عَازِبٍ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ مَنْ مَنَحَ مَنِيحَةَ لَبَنٍ أَوْ وَرِقٍ أَوْ هَدَى زُقَاقًا كَانَ لَهُ مِثْلُ عِتْقِ رَقَبَةٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ مُصَرِّفٍ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رَوَى مَنْصُورُ بْنُ الْمُعْتَمِرِ وَشُعْبَةُ عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ مُصَرِّفٍ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ ‏.‏ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنِ النُّعْمَانِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ ‏.‏ وَمَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ ‏"‏ مَنْ مَنَحَ مَنِيحَةَ وَرِقٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ إِنَّمَا يَعْنِي بِهِ قَرْضَ الدَّرَاهِمِ قَوْلُهُ ‏"‏ أَوْ هَدَى زُقَاقًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي بِهِ هِدَايَةَ الطَّرِيقِ ‏.‏
Az-Zubair bin `Awwam narrated:
that the Prophet (saws) said: “There is not a morning that the slave of Allah reached except that a caller calls out: ‘Glorify the King, the Free of Deficiencies. (Sabbiḥul Malikal-Quddūs)’”
حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ وَكِيعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ نُمَيْرٍ، وَزَيْدُ بْنُ حُبَابٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدَةَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ أَبِي حُكَيْمٍ، خَطْمِيٌّ مَوْلَى الزُّبَيْرِ عَنِ الزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْعَوَّامِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَا مِنْ صَبَاحٍ يُصْبِحُ الْعِبَادُ فِيهِ إِلاَّ وَمُنَادٍ يُنَادِي سَبِّحُوا الْمَلِكَ الْقُدُّوسَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Allah loves a slave who is pious, free of all wants and the unnoticed."[Muslim].
- وعن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ يقول‏:‏ “إن الله يحب العبد التقي الغني الخفي” ‏(‏‏(‏رواه مسلم‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏ والمراد‏:‏ بـ “الغني” غني النفس، كما سبق فى الحديث الصحيح‏.‏
Ibn 'Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported:
The Prophet (PBUH) said, "The expiation for beating or slapping a slave on the face for something he has not done is to set him free."[Muslim].
- وعن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ ‏ "‏من ضرب غلامًا له حدًا لم يأتهِ، أو لطمه، فإن كفارته أن يعتقه‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه مسلم‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏
'Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:
The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "There is no day on which Allah sets free more slaves from Hell than He does on the Day of 'Arafah."[Muslim].
- وعنها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال‏:‏ ‏ "‏ما من يوم أكثر من أن يعتق الله فيه عبدًا من النار من يوم عرفة‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه مسلم‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏
It was narrated from Ibn 'Umar that:
the Messenger of Allah enjoined Zakatul-Fitr at the end of Ramadan upon the people; a Sa' of dates or a Sa' of barley, upon everyone, free or slave, male or female, of the Muslims.
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، وَالْحَارِثُ بْنُ مِسْكِينٍ، قِرَاءَةً عَلَيْهِ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ - عَنِ ابْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى النَّاسِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ عَلَى كُلِّ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said:
"The Messenger of Allah enjoined Sadaqatul Fitr upon male and female, free and slave; a Sa of dates or a Sa of barley." He said: "The people considered that equivalent to half a Sa of wheat."
أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ عَلَى الذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى وَالْحُرِّ وَالْمَمْلُوكِ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَعَدَلَ النَّاسُ إِلَى نِصْفِ صَاعٍ مِنْ بُرٍّ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said:
"The Messenger of Allah enjoined Zakah of Ramadan upon the free and the slave, male and female, a Sa[1] of dates or a Sa of barley, so the people considered that equivalent to half a Sa of wheat."
أَخْبَرَنَا عِمْرَانُ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْوَارِثِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَيُّوبُ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى الْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدِ وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ فَعَدَلَ النَّاسُ بِهِ نِصْفَ صَاعٍ مِنْ بُرٍّ ‏.‏
Abu Dawud reported the Apostle of Allaah(saws) as saying “Anyone who sets his slave girl free and then marries her, will have a double reward.”

حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادُ بْنُ السَّرِيِّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْثَرٌ، عَنْ مُطَرِّفٍ، عَنْ عَامِرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ جَارِيَتَهُ وَتَزَوَّجَهَا كَانَ لَهُ أَجْرَانِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Qatadah transmitted the tradition mentioned above through a chain of narrators like that of Shu'bah. This version adds:
Then al-Hasan forgot this tradition, and he used to say: A free man is not to be killed for a slave.
حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، بِإِسْنَادِ شُعْبَةَ مِثْلَهُ زَادَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ الْحَسَنَ نَسِيَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ فَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ لاَ يُقْتَلُ حُرٌّ بِعَبْدٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with them, narrated that:
Allah's Messenger said: "No child can compensate his father unless he finds a slave, and buys him and sets him free."
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ سُهَيْلٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَجْزِي وَلَدٌ وَالِدَهُ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَجِدَهُ مَمْلُوكًا فَيَشْتَرِيَهُ فَيُعْتِقَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Ibn`Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“Any man whose slave won an bears him a child, she will be free after he dies.”
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، حَدَّثَنَا شَرِيكٌ، عَنْ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ وَلَدَتْ أَمَتُهُ مِنْهُ فَهِيَ مُعْتَقَةٌ عَنْ دُبُرٍ مِنْهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that ‘Amr bin ‘Abasah said:
“I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: ‘Whoever shoots an arrow at the enemy and his arrow reaches the enemy, whether it hits him or not, that is equivalent to him freeing a slave.’”
حَدَّثَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَبَسَةَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ رَمَى الْعَدُوَّ بِسَهْمٍ فَبَلَغَ سَهْمُهُ الْعَدُوَّ أَصَابَ أَوْ أَخْطَأَ فَيَعْدِلُ رَقَبَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone gives a gift or guides down a land - or a path - that, for him, is equivalent to freeing a slave."

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلامٍ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا الْفَزَارِيُّ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا قِنَانُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْسَجَةَ، عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ‏:‏ مَنْ مَنَحَ مَنِيحَةً أَوْ هَدَّى زُقَاقًا، أَوْ قَالَ‏:‏ طَرِيقًا، كَانَ لَهُ عَدْلُ عِتَاقِ نَسَمَةٍ‏.‏
Ibn ’Abbas (RAA) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) said, “When a man’s slave-woman bears him a child she becomes free at his death.” Related by Ibn Majah and Al-Hakim with a weak chain of narrators.

وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ أَيُّمَا أَمَةٍ وَلَدَتْ مِنْ سَيِّدِهَا, فَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ } أَخْرَجَهُ اِبْنُ مَاجَهْ, وَالْحَاكِمُ بِإِسْنَادٍ ضَعِيف ٍ 1‏ .‏
It was narrated from 'Aishah that she wanted to buy Barirah, but her masters stipulated that her Wala' should go to them. She mentioned that to the Prophet and he said:
"Buy her and set her free, for Al-Wala' is to the one who sets the slave free." Some meat was brought and it was said: "This is some of that which was given in charity to Barirah." He said: "It is charity for her and a gift for us." And the Messenger of Allah gave her the choice, and her husband was a free man.
أَخْبَرَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ، بَرِيرَةَ فَاشْتَرَطُوا وَلاَءَهَا فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ اشْتَرِيهَا وَأَعْتِقِيهَا فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَأُتِيَ بِلَحْمٍ فَقِيلَ إِنَّ هَذَا مِمَّا تُصُدِّقَ بِهِ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ هُوَ لَهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَلَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَخَيَّرَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَكَانَ زَوْجُهَا حُرًّا ‏.‏
It was narrated from Aishah that:
she wanted to buy Barirah to set her free, but they stipulated that her loyalty (should be to them. She mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah and the Messenger of Allah said: "Buy her, and wet her free and loyalty (Wala) belongs to the one who sets the slave free." Some meat was brought to the Messenger of and it was said that this had been given in charity to Bariirah. He said: "It is charity for her, and a gift for us." And she was given the choice
أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ الْقَاسِمِ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ الْقَاسِمَ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ، بَرِيرَةَ لِلْعِتْقِ وَأَنَّهُمُ اشْتَرَطُوا وَلاَءَهَا فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ اشْتَرِيهَا فَأَعْتِقِيهَا فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَأُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِلَحْمٍ فَقِيلَ هَذَا تُصُدِّقَ بِهِ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ هُوَ لَهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَلَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَخُيِّرَتْ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Amra al-Ansari that his mother had wanted to make a bequest, but she delayed until morning and died. She had intended to set someone free, so Abd ar- Rahman said, 'I said to al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, 'Will it help her if I free a slave for her?' Al-Qasim replied, 'Sad ibn Ubada said to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'My mother died, will it help her if I set a slave free for her?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said "Yes." "'

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَمْرَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، أَنَّ أُمَّهُ، أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تُوصِيَ ثُمَّ أَخَّرَتْ ذَلِكَ إِلَى أَنْ تُصْبِحَ فَهَلَكَتْ وَقَدْ كَانَتْ هَمَّتْ بِأَنْ تُعْتِقَ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ فَقُلْتُ لِلْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَيَنْفَعُهَا أَنْ أُعْتِقَ عَنْهَا فَقَالَ الْقَاسِمُ إِنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ قَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ أُمِّي هَلَكَتْ فَهَلْ يَنْفَعُهَا أَنْ أُعْتِقَ عَنْهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Said ibn al-Musayyab said, "The slave girl is not married when there is a free woman who is a wife unless the free woman wishes it. If the free woman complies, she has two-thirds of the division of time." Malik said, "A free man must not marry a slave-girl when he can afford to marry a free-woman, and he should not marry a slave-girl when he cannot afford a free woman unless he fears fornication. That is because Allah, may he be Blessed and Exalted, says in His Book, 'If you are not affluent enough to marry believing women, who are muhsanat, take slave-girls who are believing women that your right hands own.' (Sura 4 ayat 24) He says, 'That is for those of you who fear al-anat.' " Malik said, "Al-anat is fornication."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ لاَ تُنْكَحُ الأَمَةُ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَشَاءَ الْحُرَّةُ فَإِنْ طَاعَتِ الْحُرَّةُ فَلَهَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِنَ الْقَسْمِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لِحُرٍّ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ أَمَةً وَهُوَ يَجِدُ طَوْلاً لِحُرَّةٍ وَلاَ يَتَزَوَّجَ أَمَةً إِذَا لَمْ يَجِدْ طَوْلاً لِحُرَّةٍ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَخْشَى الْعَنَتَ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنْكُمْ طَوْلاً أَنْ يَنْكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِمَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ مِنْ فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ‏}‏ وَقَالَ ‏{‏ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنْكُمْ‏}‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالْعَنَتُ هُوَ الزِّنَا ‏.‏
Malik said about a man who had his slave in a kitaba and then the mukatab died and left his umm walad, and there remained for him some of his kitaba to pay and he left what would pay it, "The umm walad is a slave since the mukatab was not freed until he died and he did not leave children that were set free by his paying what remained, so that the umm walad of their father was freed by their being set free." Malik said about a mukatab who set free a slave of his or gave sadaqa with some of his property and his master did not know that until he had set the mukatab free, "That has been performed by him and the master does not rescind it. If the master of the mukatab knows before he sets the mukatab free, he can reject that and not permit it. If the mukatab is then freed and it becomes in his power to do so, he does not have to free the slave, nor give the sadaqa unless he does it voluntarily from himself."

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying:
If anyone emancipates a Muslim slave, Allah will set free from Hell an organ of his body for every organ of his (slave's) body.
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى الْعَنَزِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ أَبِي هِنْدٍ - حَدَّثَنِي إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ أَبِي حَكِيمٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ ابْنِ مَرْجَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي، هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً مُؤْمِنَةً أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ إِرْبٍ مِنْهَا إِرْبًا مِنْهُ مِنَ النَّارِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace benpon him) as saying:
He who emancipates a slave, Allah will set free from Hell every limb (of his body) for every limb of his (slave's) body, even his private parts.
وَحَدَّثَنَا دَاوُدُ بْنُ رُشَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُطَرِّفٍ أَبِي غَسَّانَ، الْمَدَنِيِّ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ ابْنِ مَرْجَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهَا عُضْوًا مِنْ أَعْضَائِهِ مِنَ النَّارِ حَتَّى فَرْجَهُ بِفَرْجِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported:
I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who emancipates a believing slave. Allah will set free from Fire his every limb for every limb of his (slave's), even his private parts for his.
وَحَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْهَادِ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ ابْنِ مَرْجَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً مُؤْمِنَةً أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنَ النَّارِ حَتَّى يُعْتِقَ فَرْجَهُ بِفَرْجِهِ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had asked Ibn Shihab about the ila of the slave. He said that it was like the ila of the free man, and it put an obligation on him. The ila of the slave was two months.

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ عَنْ إِيلاَءِ الْعَبْدِ، فَقَالَ هُوَ نَحْوُ إِيلاَءِ الْحُرِّ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِ وَاجِبٌ وَإِيلاَءُ الْعَبْدِ شَهْرَانِ ‏.‏
Malik said that if a slave-girl, who was the wife of a slave, was set free before he had consummated the marriage, and she chose herself, then she had no bride-price and it was a pronouncement of divorce. That was what was done among them.

It was narrated that Ash-Sharid bin Suwaid Ath-Thaqafi said:
"I came to the Messenger of Allah and said: 'My mother left a will saying that a slave should be freed on her behalf. I have a Nubian slave girl; will it suffice if I free her on her behalf?' He said: 'Bring her here.' The Prophet said to her: 'Who is your Lord?' She said: 'Allah.' He said: 'Who am I?' She said: 'The Messenger of Allah.' He said: 'Set her free , for she is a believer.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنِ الشَّرِيدِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ الثَّقَفِيِّ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ إِنَّ أُمِّي أَوْصَتْ أَنْ تُعْتَقَ عَنْهَا رَقَبَةٌ وَإِنَّ عِنْدِي جَارِيَةً نُوبِيَّةً أَفَيُجْزِئُ عَنِّي أَنْ أَعْتِقَهَا عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ ائْتِنِي بِهَا ‏"‏‏.‏ فَأَتَيْتُهُ بِهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَنْ رَبُّكِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَتِ اللَّهُ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ أَنَا ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَتْ أَنْتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَأَعْتِقْهَا فَإِنَّهَا مُؤْمِنَةٌ ‏"‏‏.‏
Zadhan said:
I came to Ibn ‘Umar when he set his slave free. He took a stick or something else from the earth and said; for me there is no reward even equivalent to this. I heard the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) say: If anyone slaps or beats his slave the atonement due from him is to set him free.
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، وَأَبُو كَامِلٍ قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ فِرَاسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، ذَكْوَانَ عَنْ زَاذَانَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ وَقَدْ أَعْتَقَ مَمْلُوكًا لَهُ فَأَخَذَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ عُودًا أَوْ شَيْئًا فَقَالَ مَا لِي فِيهِ مِنَ الأَجْرِ مَا يَسْوَى هَذَا سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ لَطَمَ مَمْلُوكَهُ أَوْ ضَرَبَهُ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Ibn`Umar that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“Whoever frees his share of a slave, the price of the slave should be fairly evaluated, and he (the partner who initiated this process) should free him (in full, by giving the rest of his price to the other co-owners), if he has enough wealth to do so. Otherwise, he will have freed whatever he freed.”
حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ حَكِيمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ أُقِيمَ عَلَيْهِ بِقِيمَةِ عَدْلٍ فَأَعْطَى شُرَكَاءَهُ حِصَصَهُمْ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ مَا يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَهُ وَعَتَقَ عَلَيْهِ الْعَبْدُ وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said from Amra bint Abd ar- Rahman that Barira came asking the help of A'isha, umm al-muminin. A'isha said, "If your masters agree that I pay them your price in one lump sum and set you free I will do it." Barira mentioned that to her masters and they said, "No, not unless your wala' is ours." Yahya ibn Said added that Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman claimed that A'isha mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said, "Buy her and set her free. The wala' only belongs to the one who sets free."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عَمْرَةَ بِنْتِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ بَرِيرَةَ، جَاءَتْ تَسْتَعِينُ عَائِشَةَ أُمَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ إِنْ أَحَبَّ أَهْلُكِ أَنْ أَصُبَّ لَهُمْ ثَمَنَكِ صَبَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأُعْتِقَكِ فَعَلْتُ ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ بَرِيرَةُ لأَهْلِهَا فَقَالُوا لاَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَنَا وَلاَؤُكِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ فَزَعَمَتْ عَمْرَةُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ ذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ اشْتَرِيهَا وَأَعْتِقِيهَا فَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated Abu Huraira:
When I came to the Prophet said on my way, "O what a long tedious tiresome night; nevertheless, it has rescued me from the place of Heathenism." A slave of mine ran away on the way. When I reached the Prophet I gave him the oath of allegiance (for Islam), and while I was sitting with him, suddenly the slave appeared. The Prophet said to me. "O Abu Huraira! Here is your slave," I said, "He (i.e. the slave) is (free) for Allah's Sake," and manumitted him.
حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، عَنْ قَيْسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ لَمَّا قَدِمْتُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قُلْتُ فِي الطَّرِيقِ:

يَا لَيْلَةً مِنْ طُولِهَا وَعَنَائِهَا     عَلَى أَنَّهَا مِنْ دَارَةِ الْكُفْرِ نَجَّتِ


وَأَبَقَ غُلاَمٌ لِي فِي الطَّرِيقِ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمْتُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَبَايَعْتُهُ، فَبَيْنَا أَنَا عِنْدَهُ إِذْ طَلَعَ الْغُلاَمُ، فَقَالَ لِي النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ يَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ هَذَا غُلاَمُكَ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ هُوَ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى‏.‏ فَأَعْتَقْتُهُ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman that a man in the time of Aban ibn Uthman's amirate freed all of his slaves and did not have other property than them. Aban ibn Uthman took charge of the slaves and they were divided into three groups. Then he drew lots on the basis that which ever group drew the dead man's arrow would be free. The arrow fell to one of the thirds, and that third was freed.

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، فِي إِمَارَةِ أَبَانَ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ أَعْتَقَ رَقِيقًا لَهُ كُلَّهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُمْ فَأَمَرَ أَبَانُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ بِتِلْكَ الرَّقِيقِ فَقُسِمَتْ أَثْلاَثًا ثُمَّ أَسْهَمَ عَلَى أَيِّهِمْ يَخْرُجُ سَهْمُ الْمَيِّتِ فَيَعْتِقُونَ فَوَقَعَ السَّهْمُ عَلَى أَحَدِ الأَثْلاَثِ فَعَتَقَ الثُّلُثُ الَّذِي وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ السَّهْمُ ‏.‏
Al-Hasan reported that a man ordered one of his slaves to draw water using one of his camels and the man fell asleep. The master came with a torch and put it in his face and the slave fell into the well. In the morning, the slave went to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and 'Umar saw what had happened to his slave and therefore 'Umar set him free."

حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجُ بْنُ مِنْهَالٍ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيِّبِ، وَحَمَّادٍ، عَنْ حَبِيبٍ، وَحُمَيْدٍ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ أَنَّ رَجُلاً أَمَرَ غُلاَمًا لَهُ أَنْ يَسْنُوَ عَلَى بَعِيرٍ لَهُ، فَنَامَ الْغُلاَمُ، فَجَاءَ بِشُعْلَةٍ مِنْ نَارٍ فَأَلْقَاهَا فِي وَجْهِهِ، فَتَرَدَّى الْغُلاَمُ فِي بِئْرٍ، فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحَ أَتَى عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، فَرَأَى الَّذِي فِي وَجْهِهِ، فَأَعْتَقَهُ‏.‏
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Marwan ibn al-Hakam wrote to Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan to mention to him that a drunkard was brought to him who had killed a man. Muawiya wrote to him to kill him in retaliation for the dead man. Yahya said that Malik said, "The best of what I have heard on the interpretation of this ayat, the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, 'The free man for the free man and the slave for the slave - these are men and the woman for the woman,' (Sura 2 ayat 178) is that retaliation is between women as it is between men. The free woman is killed for the free woman as the free man is killed for the free man. The slave-girl is slain for the slave-girl as the slave is slain for the slave. Retaliation is between women as it is between men. That is because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'We have written for them in it that it is a life for a life and an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds there is retaliation.' (Sura 5 ayat 48) Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, mentioned that it is a life for a life. It is the life of a free woman for the life of a free man, and her injury for his injury." Malik said about a man who held a man fast for another man to hit, and he died on the spot, "If he held him and he thought that he meant to kill him, the two of them are both killed for him. If he held him and he thought that he meant to beat him as people sometimes do, and he did not think that he meant to kill him, the murderer is slain and the one who held him is punished with a very severe punishment and jailed for a year. There is no killing against him." Malik said about a man who murdered a man intentionally or gouged out his eye intentionally, and then was slain or had his eye gouged out himself before retaliation was inflicted on him, "There is no blood-money nor retaliation against him. The right of the one who was killed or had his eye gouged out goes when the thing which he is claiming as retaliation goes. It is the same with a man who murders another man intentionally and then the murderer dies. When the murderer dies, the one seeking blood-revenge has nothing of blood- money or anything else. That is by the word of Allah, the Blessed the Exalted, 'Retaliation is written for you in killing. The free man for the free man and the slave for the slave.' " Malik said, "He only has retaliation against the one who killed him. If the man who murdered him dies, he has no retaliation or blood-money." Malik said, "There is no retaliation held against a free man by a slave for any injury. The slave is killed for the free man when he intentionally murders him. The free man is not slain for the slave, even if he murders him intentionally. It is the best of what I have heard."

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، كَتَبَ إِلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ يَذْكُرُ أَنَّهُ أُتِيَ بِسَكْرَانَ قَدْ قَتَلَ رَجُلاً فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ مُعَاوِيَةُ أَنِ اقْتُلْهُ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي تَأْوِيلِ هَذِهِ الآيَةِ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ‏{‏الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ ‏}‏ فَهَؤُلاَءِ الذُّكُورُ ‏{‏وَالأُنْثَى بِالأُنْثَى‏}‏ أَنَّ الْقِصَاصَ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الإِنَاثِ كَمَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الذُّكُورِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ الْحُرَّةُ تُقْتَلُ بِالْمَرْأَةِ الْحُرَّةِ كَمَا يُقْتَلُ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالأَمَةُ تُقْتَلُ بِالأَمَةِ كَمَا يُقْتَلُ الْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْقِصَاصُ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ كَمَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالْقِصَاصُ أَيْضًا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالأَنْفَ بِالأَنْفِ وَالأُذُنَ بِالأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ‏}‏ فَذَكَرَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَنَّ النَّفْسَ ...
Narrated `Aisha:
I intended to buy Buraira but her masters stipulated that her Wala should be for them. When the Prophet was told about it, he said to me, "Buy and manumit her, as the Wala' is for the liberator." Once Buraira was given some meat, and the Prophet asked, "What is this?" I said, "It has been given to Buraira in charity." He said, "It is sadaqa for her but a gift for us." Buraira was given the option (to stay with her husband or to part with him). `Abdur-Rahman (a sub-narrator) wondered, "Was her husband a slave or a free man?" Shu`ba (another sub-narrator) said, "I asked `Abdur-Rahman whether her husband was a slave or a free man. He replied that he did not know whether he was a slave or a free man."
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْهُ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّهَا أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ بَرِيرَةَ، وَأَنَّهُمُ اشْتَرَطُوا وَلاَءَهَا، فَذُكِرَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ اشْتَرِيهَا فَأَعْتِقِيهَا، فَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏‏.‏ وَأُهْدِيَ لَهَا لَحْمٌ، فَقِيلَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم هَذَا تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى بَرِيرَةَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ هُوَ لَهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَلَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ وَخُيِّرَتْ‏.‏ قَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ زَوْجُهَا حُرٌّ أَوْ عَبْدٌ قَالَ شُعْبَةُ سَأَلْتُ عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ زَوْجِهَا‏.‏ قَالَ لاَ أَدْرِي أَحُرٌّ أَمْ عَبْدٌ
Malik related to me that he had heard that a slave-girl came to Umar ibn al-Khattab (who had been beaten by her master with a red hot iron) and he set her free. Malik said, "The generally agreed- on way of doing things among us is that a man is not permitted to be freed while he has a debt against him which exceeds his property. A boy is not allowed to be set free until he has reached puberty. The young person whose affairs are managed cannot set free in his property, even when he reaches puberty, until he manages his property."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، أَتَتْهُ وَلِيدَةٌ قَدْ ضَرَبَهَا سَيِّدُهَا بِنَارٍ أَوْ أَصَابَهَا بِهَا فَأَعْتَقَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ لاَ تَجُوزُ عَتَاقَةُ رَجُلٍ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ يُحِيطُ بِمَالِهِ وَأَنَّهُ لاَ تَجُوزُ عَتَاقَةُ الْغُلاَمِ حَتَّى يَحْتَلِمَ أَوْ يَبْلُغَ مَبْلَغَ الْمُحْتَلِمِ وَأَنَّهُ لاَ تَجُوزُ عَتَاقَةُ الْمُوَلَّى عَلَيْهِ فِي مَالِهِ وَإِنْ بَلَغَ الْحُلُمَ حَتَّى يَلِيَ مَالَهُ ‏.‏
It was narrated that 'Aishah said:
"Three judgments were established because of Barirah. Her masters wanted to sell her but they stipulated that Al-Wala should still be to them. I mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: 'Buy her and set her free, for Al-Wala, is to the one who sets the slave free.' She was set free and the Messenger of Allah gave her the choice, and she chose herself. And she used to be given charity and she would give some of it as a gift to us. I mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: 'Eat it for it is charity for her and a gift for us.'"
أَخْبَرَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ آدَمَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ فِي بَرِيرَةَ ثَلاَثُ قَضِيَّاتٍ أَرَادَ أَهْلُهَا أَنْ يَبِيعُوهَا وَيَشْتَرِطُوا الْوَلاَءَ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ اشْتَرِيهَا وَأَعْتِقِيهَا فَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَأُعْتِقَتْ فَخَيَّرَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاخْتَارَتْ نَفْسَهَا وَكَانَ يُتَصَدَّقُ عَلَيْهَا فَتُهْدِي لَنَا مِنْهُ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ كُلُوهُ فَإِنَّهُ عَلَيْهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَهُوَ لَنَا هَدِيَّةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Maymuna, the wife of the Prophet, said, "I heard Anas ibn Malik say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever says in the morning, "O Allah, we bear witness to you and we bear witness to the bearers of You Throne and Your angels and all Your creation. You are Allah. There is no god but You alone with no partner and Muhammad is your slave and Messenger", by that Allah will free a quarter of him from the Fire on that day. If someone says it twice, Allah will free half of him from the Fire. If he says it four times, Allah will free him completely from the Fire on that day.'"

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا بَقِيَّةُ، عَنْ مُسْلِمِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ، مَوْلَى مَيْمُونَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم، قَالَ‏:‏ سَمِعْتُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ قَالَ‏:‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ مَنْ قَالَ حِينَ يُصْبِحُ‏:‏ اللَّهُ إِنَّا أَصْبَحْنَا نُشْهِدُكَ، وَنُشْهِدُ حَمَلَةَ عَرْشِكَ، وَمَلاَئِكَتَكَ وَجَمِيعَ خَلْقِكَ، أَنَّكَ أَنْتَ اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ وَحْدَكَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَكَ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُكَ وَرَسُولُكَ، إِلاَّ أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ رُبُعَهُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ، وَمَنْ قَالَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ أَعْتَقَ اللَّهُ نِصْفَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَمَنْ قَالَهَا أَرْبَعَ مَرَّاتٍ أَعْتَقَهُ اللَّهُ مِنَ النَّارِ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ‏.‏
Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things in our community is that any setting-free which a man makes in a bequest that he wills in health or illness can be rescinded by him when he likes and changed when he likes as long as it is not a tadbir. There is no way to rescind a tadbir once he has made it. "As for every child born to him by a slave-girl who he wills to be set free but he does not make mudabbara, her children are not freed with her when she is freed. That is because her master can change his will when he likes and rescind it when he likes, and being set free is not confirmed for her. She is in the position of a slave-girl whose master says, 'If so- and-so remains with me until I die, she is free.' " (i.e. he does not make a definite contract.) Malik said, "If she fulfils that, that is hers. If he wishes, before that, he can sell her and her child because he has not entered her child into any condition he has made for her. "The bequest in setting free is different from the tadbir. The precedent of the sunna makes a distinction between them. Had a bequest been in the position of a tadbir, no testator would be able to change his will and what he mentioned in it of setting free. His property would be tied up and he would not be able to use it." Malik said about a man who made all his slaves mudabbar while he was well and they were his only property, "If he made some of them mudabbar before the others, one begins with the first until the third of his property is reached. (i.e. their value is matched against the third, and those whose value is covered are free.) If he makes the mall mudabbar in his illness, and says in one statement, 'So-and-so is free. So-and-so is free. So-and-so is free if my death occurs in this illness,' or he makes them all mudabbar in one statement, they are matched against the third and one does not begin with any of them before the others. It is a bequest and they have a third of his property divided between them in shares. Then the third of his property frees each of them according to the extent of his share. "No single one of them is given preference when that all occurs in his illness." Malik spoke about a master who made his slave a mudabbar and then he died and the only property he had was the mudabbar slave and the slave had property. He said, "A third of the mudabbar is freed and his property remains in his possession." Malik said about a mudabbar whose master gave him a kitaba and then the master died and did not leave any property other than him, "A third of him is freed and a third of his kitaba is reduced, and he owes two-thirds." Malik spoke about a man who freed half of his slave while he was ill and made irrevocable his freeing half of him or all of him, and he had made another slave of his mudabbar before that. He said, "One begins with the slave he made mudabbar before the one he freed while he was ill. That is because the man cannot revoke what he has made mudabbar and cannot follow it with a matter which will rescind it. When this mudabbar is freed, then what remains of the third goes to the one who had half of him freed so as to complete his setting-free entirely in the third of the property of the deceased. If what is left of the third does not cover that, whatever is covered by what is left of the third is freed after the first mudabbar is freed . "

Malik related to me that he had heard that Fadala ibn Ubayd al- Ansari who was one of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked whether it was permissible for a man who had to free a slave to free an illegitimate child. He said, "Yes, That will give satisfaction for him."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، وَكَانَ، مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ رَقَبَةٌ هَلْ يَجُوزُ لَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ وَلَدَ زِنًا قَالَ نَعَمْ ذَلِكَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ ‏.‏
Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that A'isha umm al-muminin wanted to buy a slave-girl and set her free. Her people said, "We will sell her to you provided that her wala' is ours." She mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, "Don't let that hinder you, for the wala' only belongs to the one who sets free."

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ أُمَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ جَارِيَةً تُعْتِقُهَا فَقَالَ أَهْلُهَا نَبِيعُكِهَا عَلَى أَنَّ وَلاَءَهَا لَنَا فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَمْنَعَنَّكِ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاَءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet (saws) said:
"Whoever frees a portion" or, he said: "a part" or he said: "a share he owns of a slave, then he can afford the remainder of the price according to the reasonable price, then he will be free. Otherwise he has freed as much as he has freed (only)." Ayyub (one of the narrators) said: "Perhaps Nafi said in this Hadith: 'Meaning he has freed as much of him as he has freed.'"
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مَنِيعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا - أَوْ قَالَ شِقْصًا أَوْ قَالَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ فَكَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ مَا يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَهُ بِقِيمَةِ الْعَدْلِ فَهُوَ عَتِيقٌ وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَيُّوبُ وَرُبَّمَا قَالَ نَافِعٌ فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ يَعْنِي فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ ابْنِ عُمَرَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَقَدْ رَوَاهُ سَالِمٌ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَحْوَهُ ‏.‏
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said:
"Whoever frees a portion" or he said: "a part of a slave, then he should finish paying his price if he can afford it. If he can not afford to pay reasonable price then he should be allowed to work to earn the amount that will free him without overburdening him." (Another chain) similar, and he said: "a part".
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ خَشْرَمٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ بَشِيرِ بْنِ نَهِيكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ نَصِيبًا - أَوْ قَالَ شِقْصًا فِي مَمْلُوكٍ فَخَلاَصُهُ فِي مَالِهِ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ قُوِّمَ قِيمَةَ عَدْلٍ ثُمَّ يُسْتَسْعَى فِي نَصِيبِ الَّذِي لَمْ يُعْتِقْ غَيْرَ مَشْقُوقٍ عَلَيْهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو ‏.‏ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، نَحْوَهُ وَقَالَ ‏"‏ شَقِيصًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَهَكَذَا رَوَى أَبَانُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، مِثْلَ رِوَايَةِ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى شُعْبَةُ، هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ فِيهِ أَمْرَ السِّعَايَةِ ‏.‏ وَاخْتَلَفَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ فِي السِّعَايَةِ فَرَأَى بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ السِّعَايَةَ فِي هَذَا ‏.‏ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ وَأَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ وَبِهِ يَقُولُ إِسْحَاقُ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ قَالَ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ إِذَا كَانَ الْعَبْدُ بَيْنَ الرَّجُلَيْنِ فَأَعْتَقَ أَحَدُهُمَا نَصِيبَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ غَرِمَ نَصِيبَ صَاحِبِهِ وَعَتَقَ الْعَبْدَ مِنْ مَالِهِ وَإِنْ ...
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
'Aishah, mother of believers (ra), intended to buy a slave-girl to set her free. Her people said: We shall sell her to you on one condition that we shall inherit from her. 'Aishah mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah (saws). He said: That should not prevent you, for the right of inheritance belongs to the one who has set a person free.
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ قُرِئَ عَلَى مَالِكٍ وَأَنَا حَاضِرٌ، قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَرَضَ عَلَىَّ نَافِعٌ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، رضى الله عنها أُمَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ جَارِيَةً تَعْتِقُهَا فَقَالَ أَهْلُهَا نَبِيعُكِهَا عَلَى أَنَّ وَلاَءَهَا لَنَا ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَتْ عَائِشَةُ ذَاكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَمْنَعُكِ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ الْوَلاَءَ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Ibn 'Umar said that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) prescribed the Sadaqa of Ramadan (Sadaqat-al-Fitr) one sa' of dates or one sa' of barley for every free man or a slave, male or female, and then the people equalised (one sa' of dates or barley) with half a sa' of wheat.

وَحَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى، أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ، عُمَرَ قَالَ فَرَضَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَدَقَةَ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى الْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدِ وَالذَّكَرِ وَالأُنْثَى صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَعَدَلَ النَّاسُ بِهِ نِصْفَ صَاعٍ مِنْ بُرٍّ ‏.‏
Ibn Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) prescribed Zakat-ul-Fitr of Ramadan one sa' of dates or one sa' of barley for every individual among the Muslims (whether) free man or slave, male or female, young or old.

وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي فُدَيْكٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا الضَّحَّاكُ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَضَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ نَفْسٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ حُرٍّ أَوْ عَبْدٍ أَوْ رَجُلٍ أَوِ امْرَأَةٍ صَغِيرٍ أَوْ كَبِيرٍ صَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ أَوْ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏