Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn Qusayt saw Said ibn al-Musayyab sell gold counterpoising for gold. He poured his gold into one pan of the scales, and the man with whom he was counterpoising put his gold in the other pan of the scale and when the tongue of the scales was balanced, they took and gave.

Malik said, "According to the way things are done among us there is no harm in selling gold for gold, and silver for silver by counterpoising weight, even if 11 dinars are taken for 10 dinars hand to hand, when the weight of gold is equal, coin for coin, even if the number is different. Dirhams in such a situation are treated the same way as dinars."

Malik said, "If, when counterpoising gold for gold or silver for silver, there is a difference of weight, one party should not give the other the value of the difference in silver or something else. Such a transaction is ugly and a means to usury because if one of the parties were permitted to take the difference for a separate price, it could be as if he had bought it separately, so he would be permitted. Then it would be possible for him to ask for many times the value of the difference in order to permit the completion of the transaction between the two parties.

Malik said, "If he had really been sold the difference without anything else with it, he would not have taken it for a tenth of the price for which he took it in order to put a 'legal front' on the transaction. This leads to allowing what is forbidden . The matter is forbidden."

Malik said that it was not good when counterpoising to give good old gold coins and put along with them unminted gold in exchange for worn kufic gold, which was unpopular and to then treat the exchange as like for like.

Malik said, "The commentary on why that is disapproved is that the owner of the good gold uses the excellence of his old gold coins as an excuse to throw in the unminted gold with it. Had it not been for the superiority of his (good) gold over the gold of the other party, the other party would not have counterpoised the unminted gold for his kufic gold, and the deal would have been refused.

"It is like a man wanting to buy three sa of ajwa dried dates for two sa and a mudd of kabis dates, and on being told that it was not good, then offering two sa of kabis and a sa of poor dates desiring to make the sale possible. That is not good because the owner of the ajwa should not give him a sa of ajwa for a sa of poor dates. He would only give him that because of the excellence of kabis dates.

"Or it is like a man asking some one to sell him three sa of white wheat for two and a half sa of Syrian wheat, and being told that it was not good except like for like, and so offering two sa of wheat and one sa of barley intending to make the sale possible between them. That is not good because no one would have given a sa of barley for a sa of white wheat had that sa been by itself. It was only given because of the excellence of Syrian wheat over the white wheat. This is not good. It is the same as the case of the unminted gold."

Malik said, "Where gold, silver and food, things which should only be sold like for like, are concerned, something disliked and of poor quality should not be put with something good and desirable in order to make the sale possible and to make a bad situation halal. When something of desirable quality is put with something of poor quality and it is only included so that its excellence in quality is noticed, something is being sold which if it had been sold on its own, would not have been accepted and to which the buyer would not have paid any attention. It is only accepted by the buyer because of the superiority of what comes with it over his own goods. Transactions involving gold, silver, or food, must not have anything of this description enter into them. If the owner of the poor quality goods wants to sell them, he sells them on their own, and does not put anything with them. There is no harm if it is like that."


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ قُسَيْطٍ، أَنَّهُ رَأَى سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ يُرَاطِلُ الذَّهَبَ بِالذَّهَبِ فَيُفْرِغُ ذَهَبَهُ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ وَيُفْرِغُ صَاحِبُهُ الَّذِي يُرَاطِلُهُ ذَهَبَهُ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ الأُخْرَى فَإِذَا اعْتَدَلَ لِسَانُ الْمِيزَانِ أَخَذَ وَأَعْطَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي بَيْعِ الذَّهَبِ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ بِالْوَرِقِ مُرَاطَلَةً أَنَّهُ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ دِينَارًا بِعَشَرَةِ دَنَانِيرَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ إِذَا كَانَ وَزْنُ الذَّهَبَيْنِ سَوَاءً عَيْنًا بِعَيْنٍ وَإِنْ تَفَاضَلَ الْعَدَدُ وَالدَّرَاهِمُ أَيْضًا فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الدَّنَانِيرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ رَاطَلَ ذَهَبًا بِذَهَبٍ أَوْ وَرِقًا بِوَرِقٍ فَكَانَ بَيْنَ الذَّهَبَيْنِ فَضْلُ مِثْقَالٍ فَأَعْطَى صَاحِبَهُ قِيمَتَهُ مِنَ الْوَرِقِ أَوْ مِنْ غَيْرِهَا فَلاَ يَأْخُذُهُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ قَبِيحٌ وَذَرِيعَةٌ إِلَى الرِّبَا لأَنَّهُ إِذَا جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْمِثْقَالَ بِقِيمَتِهِ حَتَّى كَأَنَّهُ اشْتَرَاهُ عَلَى حِدَتِهِ جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْمِثْقَالَ بِقِيمَتِهِ مِرَارًا لأَنْ يُجِيزَ ذَلِكَ الْبَيْعَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ صَاحِبِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُ بَاعَهُ ذَلِكَ الْمِثْقَالَ مُفْرَدًا لَيْسَ مَعَهُ غَيْرُهُ لَمْ يَأْخُذْهُ بِعُشْرِ الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي أَخَذَهُ بِهِ لأَنْ يُجَوِّزَ لَهُ الْبَيْعَ فَذَلِكَ الذَّرِيعَةُ إِلَى إِحْلاَلِ الْحَرَامِ وَالأَمْرُ الْمَنْهِيُّ عَنْهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُرَاطِلُ الرَّجُلَ وَيُعْطِيهِ الذَّهَبَ الْعُتُقَ الْجِيَادَ وَيَجْعَلُ مَعَهَا تِبْرًا ذَهَبًا غَيْرَ جَيِّدَةٍ وَيَأْخُذُ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ ذَهَبًا كُوفِيَّةً مُقَطَّعَةً وَتِلْكَ الْكُوفِيَّةُ مَكْرُوهَةٌ عِنْدَ النَّاسِ فَيَتَبَايَعَانِ ذَلِكَ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَتَفْسِيرُ مَا كُرِهَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ صَاحِبَ الذَّهَبِ الْجِيَادِ أَخَذَ فَضْلَ عُيُونِ ذَهَبِهِ فِي التِّبْرِ الَّذِي طَرَحَ مَعَ ذَهَبِهِ وَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ ذَهَبِهِ عَلَى ذَهَبِ صَاحِبِهِ لَمْ يُرَاطِلْهُ صَاحِبُهُ بِتِبْرِهِ ذَلِكَ إِلَى ذَهَبِهِ الْكُوفِيَّةِ فَامْتَنَعَ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبْتَاعَ ثَلاَثَةَ أَصْوُعٍ مِنْ تَمْرٍ عَجْوَةٍ بِصَاعَيْنِ وَمُدٍّ مِنْ تَمْرٍ كَبِيسٍ فَقِيلَ لَهُ هَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ ‏.‏ فَجَعَلَ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ كَبِيسٍ وَصَاعًا مِنْ حَشَفٍ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُجِيزَ بِذَلِكَ بَيْعَهُ فَذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ صَاحِبُ الْعَجْوَةِ لِيُعْطِيَهُ صَاعًا مِنَ الْعَجْوَةِ بِصَاعٍ مِنْ حَشَفٍ وَلَكِنَّهُ إِنَّمَا أَعْطَاهُ ذَلِكَ لِفَضْلِ الْكَبِيسِ أَوْ أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ بِعْنِي ثَلاَثَةَ أَصْوُعٍ مِنَ الْبَيْضَاءِ بِصَاعَيْنِ وَنِصْفٍ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ شَامِيَّةٍ فَيَقُولُ هَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ ‏.‏ فَيَجْعَلُ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ شَامِيَّةٍ وَصَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُجِيزَ بِذَلِكَ الْبَيْعَ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَهَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُعْطِيَهُ بِصَاعٍ مِنْ شَعِيرٍ صَاعًا مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ بَيْضَاءَ لَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ الصَّاعُ مُفْرَدًا وَإِنَّمَا أَعْطَاهُ إِيَّاهُ لِفَضْلِ الشَّامِيَّةِ عَلَى الْبَيْضَاءِ فَهَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ وَهُوَ مِثْلُ مَا وَصَفْنَا مِنَ التِّبْرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَكُلُّ شَىْءٍ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ وَالطَّعَامِ كُلِّهِ الَّذِي لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُبَاعَ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُجْعَلَ مَعَ الصِّنْفِ الْجَيِّدِ مِنَ الْمَرْغُوبِ فِيهِ الشَّىْءُ الرَّدِيءُ الْمَسْخُوطُ لِيُجَازَ الْبَيْعُ وَلِيُسْتَحَلَّ بِذَلِكَ مَا نُهِيَ عَنْهُ مِنَ الأَمْرِ الَّذِي لاَ يَصْلُحُ إِذَا جُعِلَ ذَلِكَ مَعَ الصِّنْفِ الْمَرْغُوبِ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ صَاحِبُ ذَلِكَ أَنْ يُدْرِكَ بِذَلِكَ فَضْلَ جَوْدَةِ مَا يَبِيعُ فَيُعْطِيَ الشَّىْءَ الَّذِي لَوْ أَعْطَاهُ وَحْدَهُ لَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَلَمْ يَهْمُمْ بِذَلِكَ وَإِنَّمَا يَقْبَلُهُ مِنْ أَجْلِ الَّذِي يَأْخُذُ مَعَهُ لِفَضْلِ سِلْعَةِ صَاحِبِهِ عَلَى سِلْعَتِهِ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لِشَىْءٍ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ وَالطَّعَامِ أَنْ يَدْخُلَهُ شَىْءٌ مِنْ هَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَإِنْ أَرَادَ صَاحِبُ الطَّعَامِ الرَّدِيءِ أَنْ يَبِيعَهُ بِغَيْرِهِ فَلْيَبِعْهُ عَلَى حِدَتِهِ وَلاَ يَجْعَلْ مَعَ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ كَذَلِكَ ‏.‏
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 39
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1331