Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al- Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade muzabana and muhaqala. Muzabana was selling fresh dates for dried dates. Muhaqala was buying unharvested wheat in exchange for threshed wheat and renting land in exchange for wheat.

Ibn Shihab added that he had asked Said ibn al-Musayyab about renting land for gold and silver. He said, "There is no harm in it."

Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade muzabana. The explanation of muzabana is that it is buying something whose number, weight and measure is not known with something whose number, weight or measure is known, for instance, if a man has a stack of food whose measure is not known, either of wheat, dates, or whatever food, or the man has goods of wheat, date kernels, herbs, safflower, cotton, flax, silk, and does not know its measure or weight or number and then a buyer approaches him and proposes that he weigh or measure or count the goods, but, before he does, he specifies a certain weight, or measure, or number and guarantees to pay the price for that amount, agreeing that whatever falls short of that amount is a loss against him and whatever is in excess of that amount is a gain for him. That is not a sale. It is taking risks and it is an uncertain transaction. It falls into the category of gambling because he is not buying something from him for something definite which he pays. Everything which resembles this is also forbidden."

Malik said that another example of that was, for instance, a man proposing to another man, "You have cloth. I will guarantee you from this cloth of yours so many hooded cloaks, the measureof each cloak to be such-and-such, (naming a measurement). Whatever loss there is, is against me and I will fulfill you the specified amount and whatever excess there is, is mine." Or perhaps the man proposed, "I will guarantee you from this cloth of yours so many shirts, the measurement of each shirt to be such-and-such, and whatever loss there is, is against me and I will fulfill the specified amount and whatever excess there is, is mine." Or perhaps a man proposed to a man who had cattle or camel hides, "I will cut up these hides of yours into sandals on a pattern I will show you. Whatever falls short of a hundred pairs, I will make up its loss and whatever is over is mine because I guaranteed you." Another example was that a man say to a man who had ben-nuts, "I will press these nuts of yours. Whatever falls short of such-and-such a weight by the pound, I will make it up, and whatever is more than that is mine."

Malik said that all this and whatever else was like it or resembled it was in the category of muzabana, which was neither good nor permitted. It was also the same case for a man to say to a man, who had fodder leaves, date kernels, cotton, flax, herbs or safflower, "I will buy these leaves from you in exchange for such-and-such a sa, (indicating leaves which are pounded like his leaves) . . or these date kernels for such-and-such a sa of kernels like them, and the like of that in the case of safflower, cotton, flax and herbs."

Malik said, "All this is what we have described of muzabana."


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى عَنِ الْمُزَابَنَةِ وَالْمُحَاقَلَةِ وَالْمُزَابَنَةُ اشْتِرَاءُ الثَّمَرِ بِالتَّمْرِ وَالْمُحَاقَلَةُ اشْتِرَاءُ الزَّرْعِ بِالْحِنْطَةِ وَاسْتِكْرَاءُ الأَرْضِ بِالْحِنْطَةِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ فَسَأَلْتُ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ عَنِ اسْتِكْرَاءِ الأَرْضِ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ فَقَالَ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنِ الْمُزَابَنَةِ وَتَفْسِيرُ الْمُزَابَنَةِ أَنَّ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ مِنَ الْجِزَافِ الَّذِي لاَ يُعْلَمُ كَيْلُهُ وَلاَ وَزْنُهُ وَلاَ عَدَدُهُ ابْتِيعَ بِشَىْءٍ مُسَمًّى مِنَ الْكَيْلِ أَوِ الْوَزْنِ أَوِ الْعَدَدِ وَذَلِكَ أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ لَهُ الطَّعَامُ الْمُصَبَّرُ الَّذِي لاَ يُعْلَمُ كَيْلُهُ مِنَ الْحِنْطَةِ أَوِ التَّمْرِ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الأَطْعِمَةِ أَوْ يَكُونُ لِلرَّجُلِ السِّلْعَةُ مِنَ الْحِنْطَةِ أَوِ النَّوَى أَوِ الْقَضْبِ أَوِ الْعُصْفُرِ أَوِ الْكُرْسُفِ أَوِ الْكَتَّانِ أَوِ الْقَزِّ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ السِّلَعِ لاَ يُعْلَمُ كَيْلُ شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَلاَ وَزْنُهُ وَلاَ عَدَدُهُ فَيَقُولُ الرَّجُلُ لِرَبِّ تِلْكَ السِّلْعَةِ كِلْ سِلْعَتَكَ هَذِهِ أَوْ مُرْ مَنْ يَكِيلُهَا أَوْ زِنْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا يُوزَنُ أَوْ عُدَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا كَانَ يُعَدُّ فَمَا نَقَصَ عَنْ كَيْلِ كَذَا وَكَذَا صَاعًا - لِتَسْمِيَةٍ يُسَمِّيهَا - أَوْ وَزْنِ كَذَا وَكَذَا رِطْلاً أَوْ عَدَدِ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَمَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَىَّ غُرْمُهُ لَكَ حَتَّى أُوفِيَكَ تِلْكَ التَّسْمِيَةَ فَمَا زَادَ عَلَى تِلْكَ التَّسْمِيَةِ فَهُوَ لِي أَضْمَنُ مَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ لِي مَا زَادَ ‏.‏ فَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بَيْعًا وَلَكِنَّهُ الْمُخَاطَرَةُ وَالْغَرَرُ وَالْقِمَارُ يَدْخُلُ هَذَا لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَشْتَرِ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا بِشَىْءٍ أَخْرَجَهُ وَلَكِنَّهُ ضَمِنَ لَهُ مَا سُمِّيَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْكَيْلِ أَوِ الْوَزْنِ أَوِ الْعَدَدِ عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ مَا زَادَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ نَقَصَتْ تِلْكَ السِّلْعَةُ عَنْ تِلْكَ التَّسْمِيَةِ أَخَذَ مِنْ مَالِ صَاحِبِهِ مَا نَقَصَ بِغَيْرِ ثَمَنٍ وَلاَ هِبَةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ بِهَا نَفْسُهُ فَهَذَا يُشْبِهُ الْقِمَارَ وَمَا كَانَ مِثْلَ هَذَا مِنَ الأَشْيَاءِ فَذَلِكَ يَدْخُلُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ لَهُ الثَّوْبُ أَضْمَنُ لَكَ مِنْ ثَوْبِكَ هَذَا كَذَا وَكَذَا ظِهَارَةَ قَلَنْسُوَةٍ قَدْرُ كُلِّ ظِهَارَةٍ كَذَا وَكَذَا - لِشَىْءٍ يُسَمِّيهِ - فَمَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَىَّ غُرْمُهُ حَتَّى أُوفِيَكَ وَمَا زَادَ فَلِي ‏.‏ أَوْ أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ أَضْمَنُ لَكَ مِنْ ثِيَابِكَ هَذِي كَذَا وَكَذَا قَمِيصًا ذَرْعُ كُلِّ قَمِيصٍ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَمَا نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَىَّ غُرْمُهُ وَمَا زَادَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَلِي ‏.‏ أَوْ أَنْ يَقُولُ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ لَهُ الْجُلُودُ مِنْ جُلُودِ الْبَقَرِ أَوِ الإِبِلِ أُقَطِّعُ جُلُودَكَ هَذِهِ نِعَالاً عَلَى إِمَامٍ يُرِيهِ إِيَّاهُ ‏.‏ فَمَا نَقَصَ مِنْ مِائَةِ زَوْجٍ فَعَلَىَّ غُرْمُهُ وَمَا زَادَ فَهُوَ لِي بِمَا ضَمِنْتُ لَكَ ‏.‏ وَمِمَّا يُشْبِهُ ذَلِكَ أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ عِنْدَهُ حَبُّ الْبَانِ اعْصُرْ حَبَّكَ هَذَا فَمَا نَقَصَ مِنْ كَذَا وَكَذَا رِطْلاً فَعَلَىَّ أَنْ أُعْطِيَكَهُ وَمَا زَادَ فَهُوَ لِي ‏.‏ فَهَذَا كُلُّهُ وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُ مِنَ الأَشْيَاءِ أَوْ ضَارَعَهُ مِنَ الْمُزَابَنَةِ الَّتِي لاَ تَصْلُحُ وَلاَ تَجُوزُ ‏.‏ وَكَذَلِكَ - أَيْضًا - إِذَا قَالَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ لَهُ الْخَبَطُ أَوِ النَّوَى أَوِ الْكُرْسُفُ أَوِ الْكَتَّانُ أَوِ الْقَضْبُ أَوِ الْعُصْفُرُ أَبْتَاعُ مِنْكَ هَذَا الْخَبَطَ بِكَذَا وَكَذَا صَاعًا مِنْ خَبَطٍ يُخْبَطُ مِثْلَ خَبَطِهِ أَوْ هَذَا النَّوَى بِكَذَا وَكَذَا صَاعًا مِنْ نَوًى مِثْلِهِ وَفِي الْعُصْفُرِ وَالْكُرْسُفِ وَالْكَتَّانِ وَالْقَضْبِ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ فَهَذَا كُلُّهُ يَرْجِعُ إِلَى مَا وَصَفْنَا مِنَ الْمُزَابَنَةِ ‏.‏
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 31, Hadith 25
Arabic reference : Book 31, Hadith 1318