Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Marwan ibn al-Hakam wrote to Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan to mention to him that a drunkard was brought to him who had killed a man. Muawiya wrote to him to kill him in retaliation for the dead man.

Yahya said that Malik said, "The best of what I have heard on the interpretation of this ayat, the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, 'The free man for the free man and the slave for the slave - these are men and the woman for the woman,' (Sura 2 ayat 178) is that retaliation is between women as it is between men. The free woman is killed for the free woman as the free man is killed for the free man. The slave-girl is slain for the slave-girl as the slave is slain for the slave. Retaliation is between women as it is between men. That is because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'We have written for them in it that it is a life for a life and an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds there is retaliation.' (Sura 5 ayat 48) Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, mentioned that it is a life for a life. It is the life of a free woman for the life of a free man, and her injury for his injury."

Malik said about a man who held a man fast for another man to hit, and he died on the spot, "If he held him and he thought that he meant to kill him, the two of them are both killed for him. If he held him and he thought that he meant to beat him as people sometimes do, and he did not think that he meant to kill him, the murderer is slain and the one who held him is punished with a very severe punishment and jailed for a year. There is no killing against him."

Malik said about a man who murdered a man intentionally or gouged out his eye intentionally, and then was slain or had his eye gouged out himself before retaliation was inflicted on him, "There is no blood-money nor retaliation against him. The right of the one who was killed or had his eye gouged out goes when the thing which he is claiming as retaliation goes. It is the same with a man who murders another man intentionally and then the murderer dies. When the murderer dies, the one seeking blood-revenge has nothing of blood- money or anything else. That is by the word of Allah, the Blessed the Exalted, 'Retaliation is written for you in killing. The free man for the free man and the slave for the slave.' "

Malik said, "He only has retaliation against the one who killed him. If the man who murdered him dies, he has no retaliation or blood-money."

Malik said, "There is no retaliation held against a free man by a slave for any injury. The slave is killed for the free man when he intentionally murders him. The free man is not slain for the slave, even if he murders him intentionally. It is the best of what I have heard."


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، كَتَبَ إِلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ يَذْكُرُ أَنَّهُ أُتِيَ بِسَكْرَانَ قَدْ قَتَلَ رَجُلاً فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ مُعَاوِيَةُ أَنِ اقْتُلْهُ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي تَأْوِيلِ هَذِهِ الآيَةِ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ‏{‏الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ ‏}‏ فَهَؤُلاَءِ الذُّكُورُ ‏{‏وَالأُنْثَى بِالأُنْثَى‏}‏ أَنَّ الْقِصَاصَ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الإِنَاثِ كَمَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الذُّكُورِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ الْحُرَّةُ تُقْتَلُ بِالْمَرْأَةِ الْحُرَّةِ كَمَا يُقْتَلُ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالأَمَةُ تُقْتَلُ بِالأَمَةِ كَمَا يُقْتَلُ الْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْقِصَاصُ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ كَمَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالْقِصَاصُ أَيْضًا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالأَنْفَ بِالأَنْفِ وَالأُذُنَ بِالأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ‏}‏ فَذَكَرَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ فَنَفْسُ الْمَرْأَةِ الْحُرَّةِ بِنَفْسِ الرَّجُلِ الْحُرِّ وَجُرْحُهَا بِجُرْحِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُمْسِكُ الرَّجُلَ لِلرَّجُلِ فَيَضْرِبُهُ فَيَمُوتُ مَكَانَهُ أَنَّهُ إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُ وَهُوَ يَرَى أَنَّهُ يُرِيدُ قَتْلَهُ قُتِلاَ بِهِ جَمِيعًا وَإِنْ أَمْسَكَهُ وَهُوَ يَرَى أَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الضَّرْبَ مِمَّا يَضْرِبُ بِهِ النَّاسُ لاَ يَرَى أَنَّهُ عَمَدَ لِقَتْلِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يُقْتَلُ الْقَاتِلُ وَيُعَاقَبُ الْمُمْسِكُ أَشَدَّ الْعُقُوبَةِ وَيُسْجَنُ سَنَةً لأَنَّهُ أَمْسَكَهُ وَلاَ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ الْقَتْلُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَقْتُلُ الرَّجُلَ عَمْدًا أَوْ يَفْقَأُ عَيْنَهُ عَمْدًا فَيُقْتَلُ الْقَاتِلُ أَوْ تُفْقَأُ عَيْنُ الْفَاقِئِ
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 43, Hadith 15
Arabic reference : Book 43, Hadith 1596