كتاب العقول
43
Blood-Money

Malik said that Ibn Shihab said, "The precedent of the sunna in the intentional murder is that when the relatives of the murdered person relinquish retaliation, the blood-money is owed by the murderer from his own property unless the tribe helps him with it willingly."

Malik said, "What is done in our community is that the blood- money is not obliged against the tribe until it has reached a third of the full amount and upwards. Whatever reaches a third is against the tribe, and whatever is below a third, is against the property of the one who did the injury."

Malik said, "The way of doing things about which there is no dispute among us, in the case of someone who has the blood-money accepted from him in intentional murder or in any injury in which there is retaliation, is that that blood-money is not due from the tribe unless they wish it. The blood-money for that is from the property of the murderer or the injurer if he has property. If he does not have any property, it is a debt against him, and none of it is owed by the tribe unless they wish."

Malik said, "The tribe does not pay blood-money to anyone who injures himself, intentionally or accidentally. This is the opinion of the people of fiqh in our community. I have not heard that anyone has made the tribe liable for any blood-money incurred by intentional acts. Part of what is well-known of that is that Allah, the Blessed, and the Exalted, said in His Book, 'Whoever has something pardoned him by his brother, should follow it with what is accepted and pay it with good will' (Sura 2 ayat 178) The commentary on that - in our view - and Allah knows best, is that whoever gives his brother something of the blood- money, should follow it with what is accepted and pay him with good will."

Malik spoke about a child who had no property and a woman who had no property. He said, "When one of them causes an injury below a third of the blood-money, it is taken on behalf of the child and woman from their personal property, if they have property from which it may be taken. If not, the injury which each of them has caused is a debt against them. The tribe does not have to pay any of it and the father of a child is not liable for the blood-money of an injury caused by the child and he is not responsible for it."

Malik said, "The way of doing things in our community about which there is no dispute, is that when a slave is killed, the value for him is that of the day on which he was killed. The tribe of the murderer is not liable for any of the value of the slave, great or small. That is the responsibility of the one who struck him from his own personal property as far as it covers. If the value of the slave is the blood- money or more, that is against him in his property. That is because the slave is a certain type of goods."

قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِنَّ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ قَالَ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ فِي قَتْلِ الْعَمْدِ حِينَ يَعْفُو أَوْلِيَاءُ الْمَقْتُولِ أَنَّ الدِّيَةَ تَكُونُ عَلَى الْقَاتِلِ فِي مَالِهِ خَاصَّةً إِلاَّ أَنْ تُعِينَهُ الْعَاقِلَةُ عَنْ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ مِنْهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الدِّيَةَ لاَ تَجِبُ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ الثُّلُثَ فَصَاعِدًا فَمَا بَلَغَ الثُّلُثَ فَهُوَ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ وَمَا كَانَ دُونَ الثُّلُثِ فَهُوَ فِي مَالِ الْجَارِحِ خَاصَّةً ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَنَا فِيمَنْ قُبِلَتْ مِنْهُ الدِّيَةُ فِي قَتْلِ الْعَمْدِ أَوْ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنَ الْجِرَاحِ الَّتِي فِيهَا الْقِصَاصُ أَنَّ عَقْلَ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَكُونُ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءُوا وَإِنَّمَا عَقْلُ ذَلِكَ فِي مَالِ الْقَاتِلِ أَوِ الْجَارِحِ خَاصَّةً إِنْ وُجِدَ لَهُ مَالٌ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ لَهُ مَالٌ كَانَ دَيْنًا عَلَيْهِ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءُوا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ تَعْقِلُ الْعَاقِلَةُ أَحَدًا أَصَابَ نَفْسَهُ عَمْدًا أَوْ خَطَأً بِشَىْءٍ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ رَأْىُ أَهْلِ الْفِقْهِ عِنْدَنَا وَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَنَّ أَحَدًا ضَمَّنَ الْعَاقِلَةَ مِنْ دِيَةِ الْعَمْدِ شَيْئًا وَمِمَّا يُعْرَفُ بِهِ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ‏}‏ فَتَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ - فِيمَا نُرَى وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ - أَنَّهُ مَنْ أُعْطِيَ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الْعَقْلِ فَلْيَتْبَعْهُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلْيُؤَدِّ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الصَّبِيِّ الَّذِي لاَ مَالَ لَهُ وَالْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي لاَ مَالَ لَهَا إِذَا جَنَى أَحَدُهُمَا جِنَايَةً دُونَ الثُّلُثِ إِنَّهُ ضَامِنٌ عَلَى الصَّبِيِّ وَالْمَرْأَةِ فِي مَالِهِمَا خَاصَّةً إِنْ كَانَ لَهُمَا مَالٌ أُخِذَ مِنْهُ وَإِلاَّ فَجِنَايَةُ كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا دَيْنٌ عَلَيْهِ لَيْسَ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ وَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ أَبُو الصَّبِيِّ بِعَقْلِ جِنَايَةِ الصَّبِيِّ وَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا قُتِلَ كَانَتْ فِيهِ الْقِيمَةُ يَوْمَ يُقْتَلُ وَلاَ تَحْمِلُ عَاقِلَةُ قَاتِلِهِ مِنْ قِيمَةِ الْعَبْدِ شَيْئًا قَلَّ أَوْ كَثُرَ وَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى الَّذِي أَصَابَهُ فِي مَالِهِ خَاصَّةً بَالِغًا مَا بَلَغَ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ قِيمَةُ الْعَبْدِ الدِّيَةَ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ فَذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ فِي مَالِهِ وَذَلِكَ لأَنَّ الْعَبْدَ سِلْعَةٌ مِنَ السِّلَعِ ‏.‏
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 43, Hadith 8
Arabic reference : Book 43, Hadith 1587