كتاب المغازى
Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (pbuh) (Al-Maghaazi)
Chapter: The story of Bani An-Nadir
باب حَدِيثِ بَنِي النَّضِيرِ
Sahih al-Bukhari 4033, 4034

Narrated Malik bin Aus Al-Hadathan An-Nasri:

That once `Umar bin Al-Khattab called him and while he was sitting with him, his gatekeeper, Yarfa came and said, "Will you admit `Uthman, `Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf, AzZubair and Sa`d (bin Abi Waqqas) who are waiting for your permission?" `Umar said, "Yes, let them come in." After a while, Yarfa- came again and said, "Will you admit `Ali and `Abbas who are asking your permission?" `Umar said, "Yes." So, when the two entered, `Abbas said, "O chief of the believers! Judge between me and this (i.e. `Ali). "Both of them had a dispute regarding the property of Bani An-Nadir which Allah had given to His Apostle as Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting), `Ali and `Abbas started reproaching each other. The (present) people (i.e. `Uthman and his companions) said, "O chief of the believers! Give your verdict in their case and relieve each from) the other." `Umar said, "Wait I beseech you, by Allah, by Whose Permission both the heaven and the earth stand fast! Do you know that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, 'We (Prophets) our properties are not to be inherited, and whatever we leave, is to be spent in charity,' and he said it about himself?" They (i.e. `Uthman and his company) said, "He did say it. "`Umar then turned towards `Ali and `Abbas and said, "I beseech you both, by Allah! Do you know that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said this?" They replied in the affirmative. He said, "Now I am talking to you about this matter. Allah the Glorified favored His Apostle with something of this Fai (i.e. booty won without fighting) which He did not give to anybody else. Allah said:-- "And what Allah gave to His Apostle ("Fai"" Booty) from them--For which you made no expedition With either Calvary or camelry. But Allah gives power to His Apostles Over whomsoever He will And Allah is able to do all things." (59.6) So this property was especially granted to Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) . But by Allah, the Prophet (ﷺ) neither took it all for himself only, nor deprived you of it, but he gave it to all of you and distributed it amongst you till only this remained out of it. And from this Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) used to spend the yearly maintenance for his family, and whatever used to remain, he used to spend it where Allah's Property is spent (i.e. in charity), Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) kept on acting like that during all his life, Then he died, and Abu Bakr said, 'I am the successor of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ).' So he (i.e. Abu Bakr) took charge of this property and disposed of it in the same manner as Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) used to do, and all of you (at that time) knew all about it." Then `Umar turned towards `Ali and `Abbas and said, "You both remember that Abu Bakr disposed of it in the way you have described and Allah knows that, in that matter, he was sincere, pious, rightly guided and the follower of the right. Then Allah caused Abu Bakr to die and I said, 'I am the successor of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr.' So I kept this property in my possession for the first two years of my rule (i.e. Caliphate and I used to dispose of it in the same wa as Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr used to do; and Allah knows that I have been sincere, pious, rightly guided an the follower of the right (in this matte Later on both of you (i.e. `Ali and `Abbas) came to me, and the claim of you both was one and the same, O `Abbas! You also came to me. So I told you both that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Our property is not inherited, but whatever we leave is to be given in charity.' Then when I thought that I should better hand over this property to you both or the condition that you will promise and pledge before Allah that you will dispose it off in the same way as Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr did and as I have done since the beginning of my caliphate or else you should not speak to me (about it).' So, both of you said to me, 'Hand it over to us on this condition.' And on this condition I handed it over to you. Do you want me now to give a decision other than that (decision)? By Allah, with Whose Permission both the sky and the earth stand fast, I will never give any decision other than that (decision) till the Last Hour is established. But if you are unable to manage it (i.e. that property), then return it to me, and I will manage on your behalf." The sub-narrator said, "I told `Urwa bin Az-Zubair of this Hadith and he said, 'Malik bin Aus has told the truth" I heard `Aisha, the wife of the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, 'The wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) sent `Uthman to Abu Bakr demanding from him their 1/8 of the Fai which Allah had granted to his Apostle. But I used to oppose them and say to them: Will you not fear Allah? Don't you know that the Prophet used to say: Our property is not inherited, but whatever we leave is to be given in charity? The Prophet (ﷺ) mentioned that regarding himself. He added: 'The family of Muhammad can take their sustenance from this property. So the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) stopped demanding it when I told them of that.' So, this property (of Sadaqa) was in the hands of `Ali who withheld it from `Abbas and overpowered him. Then it came in the hands of Hasan bin `Ali, then in the hands of Husain bin `Ali, and then in the hands of `Ali bin Husain and Hasan bin Hasan, and each of the last two used to manage it in turn, then it came in the hands of Zaid bin Hasan, and it was truly the Sadaqa of Allah's Apostle ."

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي مَالِكُ بْنُ أَوْسِ بْنِ الْحَدَثَانِ النَّصْرِيُّ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ دَعَاهُ إِذْ جَاءَهُ حَاجِبُهُ يَرْفَا فَقَالَ هَلْ لَكَ فِي عُثْمَانَ، وَعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَالزُّبَيْرِ وَسَعْدٍ يَسْتَأْذِنُونَ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ، فَأَدْخِلْهُمْ‏.‏ فَلَبِثَ قَلِيلاً، ثُمَّ جَاءَ فَقَالَ هَلْ لَكَ فِي عَبَّاسٍ وَعَلِيٍّ يَسْتَأْذِنَانِ قَالَ نَعَمْ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا دَخَلاَ قَالَ عَبَّاسٌ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، اقْضِ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ هَذَا، وَهُمَا يَخْتَصِمَانِ فِي الَّذِي أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْ بَنِي النَّضِيرِ، فَاسْتَبَّ عَلِيٌّ وَعَبَّاسٌ، فَقَالَ الرَّهْطُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، اقْضِ بَيْنَهُمَا وَأَرِحْ أَحَدَهُمَا مِنَ الآخَرِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ اتَّئِدُوا، أَنْشُدُكُمْ بِاللَّهِ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ تَقُومُ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ، هَلْ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ يُرِيدُ بِذَلِكَ نَفْسَهُ‏.‏ قَالُوا قَدْ قَالَ ذَلِكَ‏.‏ فَأَقْبَلَ عُمَرُ عَلَى عَبَّاسٍ وَعَلِيٍّ فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكُمَا بِاللَّهِ هَلْ تَعْلَمَانِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدْ قَالَ ذَلِكَ قَالاَ نَعَمْ‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنِّي أُحَدِّثُكُمْ عَنْ هَذَا الأَمْرِ، إِنَّ اللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ كَانَ خَصَّ رَسُولَهُ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي هَذَا الْفَىْءِ بِشَىْءٍ لَمْ يُعْطِهِ أَحَدًا غَيْرَهُ فَقَالَ جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ ‏{‏وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلاَ رِكَابٍ‏}‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏{‏قَدِيرٌ‏}‏ فَكَانَتْ هَذِهِ خَالِصَةً لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، ثُمَّ وَاللَّهِ مَا احْتَازَهَا دُونَكُمْ، وَلاَ اسْتَأْثَرَهَا عَلَيْكُمْ، لَقَدْ أَعْطَاكُمُوهَا وَقَسَمَهَا فِيكُمْ، حَتَّى بَقِيَ هَذَا الْمَالُ مِنْهَا، فَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُنْفِقُ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ نَفَقَةَ سَنَتِهِمْ مِنْ هَذَا الْمَالِ، ثُمَّ يَأْخُذُ مَا بَقِيَ فَيَجْعَلُهُ مَجْعَلَ مَالِ اللَّهِ، فَعَمِلَ ذَلِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَيَاتَهُ، ثُمَّ تُوُفِّيَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَأَنَا وَلِيُّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ فَقَبَضَهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، فَعَمِلَ فِيهِ بِمَا عَمِلَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَنْتُمْ حِينَئِذٍ‏.‏ فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ وَعَبَّاسٍ وَقَالَ تَذْكُرَانِ أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ عَمِلَ فِيهِ كَمَا تَقُولاَنِ، وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ فِيهِ لَصَادِقٌ بَارٌّ رَاشِدٌ تَابِعٌ لِلْحَقِّ ثُمَّ تَوَفَّى اللَّهُ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا وَلِيُّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبِي بَكْرٍ‏.‏ فَقَبَضْتُهُ سَنَتَيْنِ مِنْ إِمَارَتِي أَعْمَلُ فِيهِ بِمَا عَمِلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ، وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ أَنِّي فِيهِ صَادِقٌ بَارٌّ رَاشِدٌ تَابِعٌ لِلْحَقِّ، ثُمَّ جِئْتُمَانِي كِلاَكُمَا وَكَلِمَتُكُمَا وَاحِدَةٌ وَأَمْرُكُمَا جَمِيعٌ، فَجِئْتَنِي ـ يَعْنِي عَبَّاسًا ـ فَقُلْتُ لَكُمَا إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَلَمَّا بَدَا لِي أَنْ أَدْفَعَهُ إِلَيْكُمَا قُلْتُ إِنْ شِئْتُمَا دَفَعْتُهُ إِلَيْكُمَا عَلَى أَنَّ عَلَيْكُمَا عَهْدَ اللَّهِ وَمِيثَاقَهُ لَتَعْمَلاَنِ فِيهِ بِمَا عَمِلَ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ، وَمَا عَمِلْتُ فِيهِ مُذْ وَلِيتُ، وَإِلاَّ فَلاَ تُكَلِّمَانِي، فَقُلْتُمَا ادْفَعْهُ إِلَيْنَا بِذَلِكَ‏.‏ فَدَفَعْتُهُ إِلَيْكُمَا، أَفَتَلْتَمِسَانِ مِنِّي قَضَاءً غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ فَوَاللَّهِ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ تَقُومُ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ لاَ أَقْضِي فِيهِ بِقَضَاءٍ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ، فَإِنْ عَجَزْتُمَا عَنْهُ، فَادْفَعَا إِلَىَّ فَأَنَا أَكْفِيكُمَاهُ‏.‏ قَالَ فَحَدَّثْتُ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ، عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ فَقَالَ صَدَقَ مَالِكُ بْنُ أَوْسٍ، أَنَا سَمِعْتُ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم تَقُولُ أَرْسَلَ أَزْوَاجُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عُثْمَانَ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ يَسْأَلْنَهُ ثُمُنَهُنَّ مِمَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، فَكُنْتُ أَنَا أَرُدُّهُنَّ، فَقُلْتُ لَهُنَّ أَلاَ تَتَّقِينَ اللَّهَ، أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْنَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ـ يُرِيدُ بِذَلِكَ نَفْسَهُ ـ إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي هَذَا الْمَالِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَانْتَهَى أَزْوَاجُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى مَا أَخْبَرَتْهُنَّ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَانَتْ هَذِهِ الصَّدَقَةُ بِيَدِ عَلِيٍّ، مَنَعَهَا عَلِيٌّ عَبَّاسًا فَغَلَبَهُ عَلَيْهَا، ثُمَّ كَانَ بِيَدِ حَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، ثُمَّ بِيَدِ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، ثُمَّ بِيَدِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ وَحَسَنِ بْنِ حَسَنٍ، كِلاَهُمَا كَانَا يَتَدَاوَلاَنِهَا، ثُمَّ بِيَدِ زَيْدِ بْنِ حَسَنٍ، وَهْىَ صَدَقَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَقًّا‏.‏
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 4033, 4034
In-book reference : Book 64, Hadith 82
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 367
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