Narrated `Abdullah:

The first Sura in which a prostration was mentioned, was Sura An-Najm (The Star). Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) prostrated (while reciting it), and everybody behind him prostrated except a man whom I saw taking a hand-full of dust in his hand and prostrated on it. Later I saw that man killed as an infidel, and he was Umaiya bin Khalaf.

حَدَّثَنَا نَصْرُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو أَحْمَدَ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ أَوَّلُ سُورَةٍ أُنْزِلَتْ فِيهَا سَجْدَةٌ ‏{‏وَالنَّجْمِ‏}‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَسَجَدَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَسَجَدَ مَنْ خَلْفَهُ، إِلاَّ رَجُلاً رَأَيْتُهُ أَخَذَ كَفًّا مِنْ تُرَابٍ فَسَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ، فَرَأَيْتُهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ قُتِلَ كَافِرًا، وَهْوَ أُمَيَّةُ بْنُ خَلَفٍ‏.‏
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 386
Arabic reference : Book 65, Hadith 4863