كتاب تفسير القرآن عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
Chapters on Tafsir
Chapter: Regarding Surat An-Nisa
باب وَمِنْ سُورَةِ النِّسَاءِ ‏‏
Jami` at-Tirmidhi 3036
Narrated Qatadah bin An-Nu'man:
"There was a household among us called Banu Ubairiq, among whom was a Bishr, a Bushair, and a Mubashshir. Bushair was a hypocrite who would recite poetry reviling the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) then he would attribute it to some of the Arabs. Then he would say: 'So-and-so said this and that [So-and-so said this and that].' So when the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) would hear that poetry, they would say: 'By Allah! No one but this filthy person said this poetry - or as the man said - and they would say: 'Ibn Al-Ubairiq said it.'" He said: "They were a poor and needy household during Jahiliyyah and Islam. The only food the people of Al-Madinah had was dates and barely. When a man was able to, he would import flour from Ash-Sham which he bought and kept for himself. As for his dependants, their only food was dates and barely. So an import arrived from Ash-Sham, and my uncle Rifa'ah bin Zaid bought a load of it, which he put in a storage area he had, where he kept his weapons - his shield and his sword. But it was taken from him from under the house. The storage was broken into and and the food and weapons were taken. In the morning, my uncle Rifa'ah came to me and said: 'O my nephew! We were robbed during the night, our storage was broken into, and our food and weapons are gone.'" He said: "They overheard us in the house, and questioned us, and someone said to us, 'We saw Banu Ubairiq cooking during the night, and it looked like they had some of your food.'" He said: "Banu Ubairiq were saying - while we were questioning them amidst their dwellings - 'By Allah! We do not think the one you are looking for is other than Labid bin Sahl, a man among us who is righteous and accepted Islam.' When Labid heard that, he brandished his sword and said: 'I stole? By Allah! You either prove this theft, or I take to you with this sword.' They said: 'Leave us O man! You are not the one who has it.' So we continued questioning in the dwellings until we had no doubt that they had taken it. So my uncle said to me: 'O my nephew! You should go to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and tell him about that.'" Qatadah said: "So I went to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and said: 'A family among us are ill-mannered, and they conspired against my uncle Rifa'ah bin aid. They broken into his storage and took his weapons and his food. We want them to return our weapons, but we have no need for the food.' So the Prophet (ﷺ) said: 'I will decide about that.' So when Banu Ubairiq heard about that, they brought a man from among them named Usair bin 'Urwah to talk to him about that, and some people form their houses gathered and said: 'O Messenger of Allah! Qatadah bin An-Nu'man and his uncle came came to a family among us who are a people of Islam and righteousness, accusing them of stealing without proof or confirmation.'" Qatadah said: "I went to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and spoke to him, and he said: 'You went to a family among them known for their Islam and righteousness, and accused them of stealing without confirmation or proof.'" He said: "So I returned wishing that I had lost some of my wealth, and that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) had not been spoke to about that. My uncle Rifa'ah came to me and said: 'O my nephew! What did you do?' So I told him what the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to me, so he said: 'It is from Allah, Whom we seek help.' It was not long before the Qur'an was revealed: 'Surely, We have sent down to you the Book in truth, that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you, so be not a pelader for the treacherous.' That is Banu Ubairiq. 'And seek forgiveness from Allah.' [That is] from what you said to Qatadah. 'Certainly Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner. They may hide from men, but they cannot hide from Allah for He is with them up to His saying: 'Most Merciful.' That is: If you seek Allah's forgiveness then He will forgive you. 'And whoever earns sin, he earns it only against himself...' up to His saying: 'A manifest sin.' Their saying about Labid; 'Had it not been for the grace of Allah and His Mercy upon you...' up to His saying: 'We shall give him a great reward.' (4:105-115)" So when the Qur'an was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) brought the weapon and returned it to Rifa'ah. Qatadah said: "When the weapon was brought to my uncle - and he was an elderly man with bad sight" or "an elderly weak man" - Abu 'Eisa was in doubt - "in Jahiliyyah, and I thought that he merely had entered into Islam (without real sincerity) but when I brought it to him, he said: 'O my nephew! It is for Allah's cause.' So I knew that his Islam was genuine. When the Qur'an was revealed, Bushair went with the idolaters, staying with Sulafah bint Sa'd bin Sumayyah. So Allah, Most High, revealed: Whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers' way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell - what an evil destination. Verily Allah forgives not associating others with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whomever He wills. And whoever associates others with Allah, then he has indeed strayed away (4:115-116). "When he went to stay with Sulafah, Hassan bin Thabit lampooned her with verses of poetry. So she took his saddle, put it on her head, then she left with it to cast into the valley. Then she said: 'You gave me the poetry of Hassan - you did not bring me any good.'"
حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي شُعَيْبٍ أَبُو مُسْلِمٍ الْحَرَّانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ الْحَرَّانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ عُمَرَ بْنِ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، قَتَادَةَ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ قَالَ كَانَ أَهْلُ بَيْتٍ مِنَّا يُقَالُ لَهُمْ بَنُو أُبَيْرِقٍ بِشْرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ وَمُبَشِّرٌ وَكَانَ بَشِيرٌ رَجُلاً مُنَافِقًا يَقُولُ الشِّعْرَ يَهْجُو بِهِ أَصْحَابَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ يَنْحَلُهُ بَعْضَ الْعَرَبِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ قَالَ فُلاَنٌ كَذَا وَكَذَا قَالَ فُلاَنٌ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَإِذَا سَمِعَ أَصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ذَلِكَ الشِّعْرَ قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ مَا يَقُولُ هَذَا الشِّعْرَ إِلاَّ هَذَا الْخَبِيثُ أَوْ كَمَا قَالَ الرَّجُلُ وَقَالُوا ابْنُ الأُبَيْرِقِ قَالَهَا قَالَ وَكَانَ أَهْلُ بَيْتِ حَاجَةٍ وَفَاقَةٍ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَالإِسْلاَمِ وَكَانَ النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا طَعَامُهُمْ بِالْمَدِينَةِ التَّمْرُ وَالشَّعِيرُ وَكَانَ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا كَانَ لَهُ يَسَارٌ فَقَدِمَتْ ضَافِطَةٌ مِنَ الشَّامِ مِنَ الدَّرْمَكِ ابْتَاعَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْهَا فَخَصَّ بِهَا نَفْسَهُ وَأَمَّا الْعِيَالُ فَإِنَّمَا طَعَامُهُمُ التَّمْرُ وَالشَّعِيرُ فَقَدِمَتْ ضَافِطَةٌ مِنَ الشَّامِ فَابْتَاعَ عَمِّي رِفَاعَةُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ حِمْلاً مِنَ الدَّرْمَكِ فَجَعَلَهُ فِي مَشْرَبَةٍ لَهُ وَفِي الْمَشْرَبَةِ سِلاَحٌ وَدِرْعٌ وَسَيْفٌ فَعُدِيَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ تَحْتِ الْبَيْتِ فَنُقِبَتِ الْمَشْرَبَةُ وَأُخِذَ الطَّعَامُ وَالسِّلاَحُ فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحَ أَتَانِي عَمِّي رِفَاعَةُ فَقَالَ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي إِنَّهُ قَدْ عُدِيَ عَلَيْنَا فِي لَيْلَتِنَا هَذِهِ فَنُقِبَتْ مَشْرَبَتُنَا فَذُهِبَ بِطَعَامِنَا وَسِلاَحِنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ فَتَحَسَّسْنَا فِي الدَّارِ وَسَأَلْنَا فَقِيلَ لَنَا قَدْ رَأَيْنَا بَنِي أُبَيْرِقٍ اسْتَوْقَدُوا فِي هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةِ وَلاَ نُرَى فِيمَا نُرَى إِلاَّ عَلَى بَعْضِ طَعَامِكُمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَكَانَ بَنُو أُبَيْرِقٍ قَالُوا وَنَحْنُ نَسْأَلُ فِي الدَّارِ وَاللَّهِ مَا نُرَى صَاحِبَكُمْ إِلاَّ لَبِيدَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ رَجُلٌ مِنَّا لَهُ صَلاَحٌ وَإِسْلاَمٌ فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ لَبِيدٌ اخْتَرَطَ سَيْفَهُ وَقَالَ أَنَا أَسْرِقُ فَوَاللَّهِ لَيُخَالِطَنَّكُمْ هَذَا السَّيْفُ أَوْ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّ هَذِهِ السَّرِقَةَ ‏.‏ قَالُوا إِلَيْكَ عَنْهَا أَيُّهَا الرَّجُلُ فَمَا أَنْتَ بِصَاحِبِهَا ‏.‏ فَسَأَلْنَا فِي الدَّارِ حَتَّى لَمْ نَشُكَّ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُهَا فَقَالَ لِي عَمِّي يَا ابْنَ أَخِي لَوْ أَتَيْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَكَرْتَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ قَتَادَةُ فَأَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ إِنَّ أَهْلَ بَيْتٍ مِنَّا أَهْلَ جَفَاءٍ عَمَدُوا إِلَى عَمِّي رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ فَنَقَبُوا مَشْرَبَةً لَهُ وَأَخَذُوا سِلاَحَهُ وَطَعَامَهُ فَلْيَرُدُّوا عَلَيْنَا سِلاَحَنَا فَأَمَّا الطَّعَامُ فَلاَ حَاجَةَ لَنَا فِيهِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ سَآمُرُ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ بَنُو أُبَيْرِقٍ أَتَوْا رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ يُقَالُ لَهُ أَسِيرُ بْنُ عُرْوَةَ فَكَلَّمُوهُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَاجْتَمَعَ فِي ذَلِكَ نَاسٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الدَّارِ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ قَتَادَةَ بْنَ النُّعْمَانِ وَعَمَّهُ عَمَدَا إِلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ مِنَّا أَهْلِ إِسْلاَمٍ وَصَلاَحٍ يَرْمُونَهُمْ بِالسَّرِقَةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ بَيِّنَةٍ وَلاَ ثَبْتٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ قَتَادَةُ فَأَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَكَلَّمْتُهُ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ عَمَدْتَ إِلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ ذُكِرَ مِنْهُمْ إِسْلاَمٌ وَصَلاَحٌ تَرْمِيهِمْ بِالسَّرِقَةِ عَلَى غَيْرِ ثَبْتٍ وَلاَ بَيِّنَةٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَرَجَعْتُ وَلَوَدِدْتُ أَنِّي خَرَجْتُ مِنْ بَعْضِ مَالِي وَلَمْ أُكَلِّمْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي ذَلِكَ فَأَتَانِي عَمِّي رِفَاعَةُ فَقَالَ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي مَا صَنَعْتَ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ بِمَا قَالَ لِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ اللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ فَلَمْ يَلْبَثْ أَنْ نَزَلَ الْقُرْآنُ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللَّهُ وَلاَ تَكُنْ لِلْخَائِنِينَ خَصِيمًا ‏)‏ بَنِي أُبَيْرِقٍ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ ‏)‏ أَىْ مِمَّا قُلْتَ لِقَتَادَةَ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا * وَلاَ تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا * يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلاَ يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ ‏)‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا ‏)‏ أَىْ لَوِ اسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ لَغَفَرَ لَهُمْ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ وَمَنْ يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ ‏)‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ إِثْمًا مُبِينًا ‏)‏ قَوْلُهُمْ لِلَبِيدٍ ‏:‏ وَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ ‏)‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا ‏)‏ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ الْقُرْآنُ أُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِالسِّلاَحِ فَرَدَّهُ إِلَى رِفَاعَةَ فَقَالَ قَتَادَةُ لَمَّا أَتَيْتُ عَمِّي بِالسِّلاَحِ وَكَانَ شَيْخًا قَدْ عَسِيَ أَوْ عَشِيَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَكُنْتُ أُرَى إِسْلاَمَهُ مَدْخُولاً فَلَمَّا أَتَيْتُهُ بِالسِّلاَحِ قَالَ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي هُوَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَعَرَفْتُ أَنَّ إِسْلاَمَهُ كَانَ صَحِيحًا فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ الْقُرْآنُ لَحِقَ بَشِيرٌ بِالْمُشْرِكِينَ فَنَزَلَ عَلَى سُلاَفَةَ بِنْتِ سَعْدِ ابْنِ سُمَيَّةَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَى وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّى وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا * إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا ‏)‏ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ عَلَى سُلاَفَةَ رَمَاهَا حَسَّانُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ بِأَبْيَاتٍ مِنْ شِعْرِهِ فَأَخَذَتْ رَحْلَهُ فَوَضَعَتْهُ عَلَى رَأْسِهَا ثُمَّ خَرَجَتْ بِهِ فَرَمَتْ بِهِ فِي الأَبْطَحِ ثُمَّ قَالَتْ أَهْدَيْتَ لِي شِعْرَ حَسَّانَ مَا كُنْتَ تَأْتِينِي بِخَيْرٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْلَمُ أَحَدًا أَسْنَدَهُ غَيْرَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ الْحَرَّانِيِّ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى يُونُسُ بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ عُمَرَ بْنِ قَتَادَةَ مُرْسَلٌ لَمْ يَذْكُرُوا فِيهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ وَقَتَادَةُ بْنُ النُّعْمَانِ هُوَ أَخُو أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ لأُمِّهِ وَأَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيُّ اسْمُهُ سَعْدُ بْنُ مَالِكِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ ‏.‏
Grade: Hasan (Darussalam)
Reference : Jami` at-Tirmidhi 3036
In-book reference : Book 47, Hadith 88
English translation : Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3036