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It was narrated that 'Aishah said:
"The Prophet prayed the 'Asr when the sun was shining into my room and there were no shadows yet."
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ صَلَّى النَّبِيُّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ الْعَصْرَ وَالشَّمْسُ فِي حُجْرَتِي لَمْ يُظْهِرْهَا الْفَىْءُ بَعْدُ ‏.‏
Urwah narrated from Aishah:
"Allah's Messenger prayed Asr while the sun was (shining) in her chamber, (and) no shadow appeared in her chamber."
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ صَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْعَصْرَ وَالشَّمْسُ فِي حُجْرَتِهَا لَمْ يَظْهَرِ الْفَىْءُ مِنْ حُجْرَتِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ أَنَسٍ وَأَبِي أَرْوَى وَجَابِرٍ وَرَافِعِ بْنِ خَدِيجٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَيُرْوَى عَنْ رَافِعٍ أَيْضًا عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي تَأْخِيرِ الْعَصْرِ وَلاَ يَصِحُّ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ عَائِشَةَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَهُوَ الَّذِي اخْتَارَهُ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْهُمْ عُمَرُ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْعُودٍ وَعَائِشَةُ وَأَنَسٌ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنَ التَّابِعِينَ تَعْجِيلُ صَلاَةِ الْعَصْرِ وَكَرِهُوا تَأْخِيرَهَا ‏.‏ وَبِهِ يَقُولُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ وَالشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ وَإِسْحَاقُ ‏.‏
Narrated `Aisha:
Allah's Apostle used to offer the `Asr prayers at a time when the sunshine was still inside my chamber and no shadow had yet appeared in it.
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ وَالشَّمْسُ فِي حُجْرَتِهَا، لَمْ يَظْهَرِ الْفَىْءُ مِنْ حُجْرَتِهَا‏.‏
Narrated Aisha:
The Prophet used to pray the `Asr prayers at a time when the sunshine was still inside my chamber and no shadow had yet appeared in it.
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُصَلِّي صَلاَةَ الْعَصْرِ وَالشَّمْسُ طَالِعَةٌ فِي حُجْرَتِي لَمْ يَظْهَرِ الْفَىْءُ بَعْدُ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ وَيَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ وَشُعَيْبٌ وَابْنُ أَبِي حَفْصَةَ وَالشَّمْسُ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَظْهَرَ‏.‏
It was narrated from 'Aishah that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) prayed 'Asr when the sun was in her room and the shadow had not appeared on her wall.

أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَلَّى صَلاَةَ الْعَصْرِ وَالشَّمْسُ فِي حُجْرَتِهَا لَمْ يَظْهَرِ الْفَىْءُ مِنْ حُجْرَتِهَا ‏.‏
It was narrated that Jabir said:
"A man asked the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) about the times of prayer. He said: 'Pray with me.' So he prayed Zuhr when the sun had passsed its zenith, 'Asr when the shadow of a thing was equal to its height, Maghrib when the sun had set and 'Isha' when the twilight had disappeared." He said: "Then he prayed Zuhr when the shadow of a man was equal in length to his height, 'Asr when the length of a man's shadow was twice his height, and Maghrib just before the twilight disappeared." (One of the narrators) 'Abdullah bin Al-Harith said: "then he said: 'With regard to 'Isha' I think it is up to one-third of the night.'" [1] [1] The speaker there is Thawr, who narrated it from 'Ata' from Jabir.
أَخْبَرَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ثَوْرٌ، حَدَّثَنِي سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبَاحٍ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ مَوَاقِيتِ الصَّلاَةِ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ صَلِّ مَعِي ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ حِينَ زَاغَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَالْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ فَىْءُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ مِثْلَهُ وَالْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَالْعِشَاءَ حِينَ غَابَ الشَّفَقُ قَالَ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الظُّهْرَ حِينَ كَانَ فَىْءُ الإِنْسَانِ مِثْلَهُ وَالْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ فَىْءُ الإِنْسَانِ مِثْلَيْهِ وَالْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ كَانَ قُبَيْلَ غَيْبُوبَةِ الشَّفَقِ ‏.‏ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ ثُمَّ قَالَ فِي الْعِشَاءِ أُرَى إِلَى ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ ‏.‏
Ibn Abbas narrated that :
the Prophet said: "Jibril (peace be upon him) led me (in Salat) twice at the House. So he prayed Zuhr the first time when the shadow was similar to (the length of) the strap a sandal. Then he prayed Asr when everything was similar (to the length of) its shadow. Then he prayed Maghrib when the sun had set and the fasting person breaks fast. Then he prayed Isha when the twilight had vanished. Then he prayed Fajr when Fajr (dawn) began, and when eating is prohibited for the fasting person. The second time he prayed Zuhr when the shadow of everything was similar to (the length of) it, at the time of Asr the day before. Then he prayed Asr when the shadow of everything was about twice as long as it. Then he prayed Maghrib at the same time as he did the first time. Then he prayed Isha, the later one, when a third of the night had gone. Then he prayed Subh when the land glowed. Then Jibril turned towards me and said: "O Muhammad! These are the times of the Prophets before you, and the (best) time is what is between these two times."
حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادُ بْنُ السَّرِيِّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ عَيَّاشِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبِيعَةَ، عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ، وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَبَّادِ بْنِ حُنَيْفٍ أَخْبَرَنِي نَافِعُ بْنُ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ مُطْعِمٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ أَمَّنِي جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ عِنْدَ الْبَيْتِ مَرَّتَيْنِ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ فِي الأُولَى مِنْهُمَا حِينَ كَانَ الْفَىْءُ مِثْلَ الشِّرَاكِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ مِثْلَ ظِلِّهِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ وَجَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَأَفْطَرَ الصَّائِمُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ حِينَ غَابَ الشَّفَقُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْفَجْرَ حِينَ بَرَقَ الْفَجْرُ وَحَرُمَ الطَّعَامُ عَلَى الصَّائِمِ ‏.‏ وَصَلَّى الْمَرَّةَ الثَّانِيَةَ الظُّهْرَ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مِثْلَهُ لِوَقْتِ الْعَصْرِ بِالأَمْسِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مِثْلَيْهِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ لِوَقْتِهِ الأَوَّلِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ الآخِرَةَ حِينَ ذَهَبَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الصُّبْحَ حِينَ أَسْفَرَتِ الأَرْضُ ثُمَّ الْتَفَتَ إِلَىَّ جِبْرِيلُ فَقَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ هَذَا وَقْتُ الأَنْبِيَاءِ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ ‏.‏ وَالْوَقْتُ فِيمَا بَيْنَ هَذَيْنِ الْوَقْتَيْنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَبُرَيْدَةَ ...
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Ziyad that Abdullah ibn Rafi, the mawla of Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked Abu Hurayra about the time of the prayer. Abu Hurayra said, "Let me tell you. Pray dhuhr when the length of your shadow matches your height, asr when your shadow is twice your height, maghrib when the sun has set, isha in the first third of the night, and subh in the very first light of dawn," i.e. when the dawn has definitely come.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ زِيَادٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ رَافِعٍ، مَوْلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ عَنْ وَقْتِ الصَّلاَةِ فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَا أُخْبِرُكَ صَلِّ الظُّهْرَ إِذَا كَانَ ظِلُّكَ مِثْلَكَ وَالْعَصْرَ إِذَا كَانَ ظِلُّكَ مِثْلَيْكَ وَالْمَغْرِبَ إِذَا غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَالْعِشَاءَ مَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ وَصَلِّ الصُّبْحَ بِغَبَشٍ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي الْغَلَسَ ‏.‏
It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said:
"The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: This is 'Jibril, peace be upon you, he came to teach you your religion. He prayed Subh when the dawn appeared, and he prayed Zuhr when the sun had (passed its zenith), and he prayed 'Asr when he saw that the shadow of a thing was equal to its height, then he prayed Maghrib when the sub had set and it is permissible for the fasting person to eat. Then he prayed 'Isha' when the twilight had disappeared. Then he came to him the following day and prayed Subh when it had got a little lighter, then he prayed Zuhr when the shadow of a thing was equal to its height, then he prayed 'Asr when the shadow of a thing was equal to twice its height, then he prayed Maghrib at the same time as before, then he prayed 'Isha' when a short period of the night had passed. Then he said: 'The prayer is between the times when you prayed yesterday and the times when you prayed today.'"
أَخْبَرَنَا الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ حُرَيْثٍ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا الْفَضْلُ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ هَذَا جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ جَاءَكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِينَكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى الصُّبْحَ حِينَ طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ وَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ حِينَ زَاغَتِ الشَّمْسُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ رَأَى الظِّلَّ مِثْلَهُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَحَلَّ فِطْرُ الصَّائِمِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ حِينَ ذَهَبَ شَفَقُ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ الْغَدَ فَصَلَّى بِهِ الصُّبْحَ حِينَ أَسْفَرَ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ صَلَّى بِهِ الظُّهْرَ حِينَ كَانَ الظِّلُّ مِثْلَهُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ الظِّلُّ مِثْلَيْهِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ بِوَقْتٍ وَاحِدٍ حِينَ غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَحَلَّ فِطْرُ الصَّائِمِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ حِينَ ذَهَبَ سَاعَةٌ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ الصَّلاَةُ مَا بَيْنَ صَلاَتِكَ أَمْسِ وَصَلاَتِكَ الْيَوْمَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Al-Husain bin Bashir bin Sallam narrated that his father said:
"Muhammad bin 'Ali and I entered upon Jabir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansari. We said to him: 'Tell us about the prayer of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).' That was at the time of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf. He said: 'The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) came out and prayed Zuhr when the sun had passed its zenith and the shadow (of a thing) was the length of a sandal-strap. Then he prayed 'Asr when the shadow of a man was the length of a sandal-strap plus his height. Then he prayed Maghrib when the sun had set. Then he prayed 'Isha' when the twilight disappeared. Then he prayed Fajr when dawn broke. The next day he prayed Zuhr when a man's shadow was equal to his height. Then he prayed 'Asr when a man's shadow was twice his height, and (the time between the prayer and sunset) lasted as long as it takes a swift rider to reach Dhul-Hulaifah. Then he prayed Maghrib when the sun set, then he prayed 'Isha' when one-third or one-half of the night had passed'" - (One of the narrators) Zaid, was not sure - "then he prayed Fajr when it had become bright."
أَخْبَرَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ الْحُبَابِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا خَارِجَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ بَشِيرِ بْنِ سَلاَّمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ دَخَلْتُ أَنَا وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، عَلَى جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَنْصَارِيِّ فَقُلْنَا لَهُ أَخْبِرْنَا عَنْ صَلاَةِ، رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَذَاكَ زَمَنُ الْحَجَّاجِ بْنِ يُوسُفَ ‏.‏ قَالَ خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ حِينَ زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَكَانَ الْفَىْءُ قَدْرَ الشِّرَاكِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ الْفَىْءُ قَدْرَ الشِّرَاكِ وَظِلِّ الرَّجُلِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ حِينَ غَابَ الشَّفَقُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْفَجْرَ حِينَ طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى مِنَ الْغَدِ الظُّهْرَ حِينَ كَانَ الظِّلُّ طُولَ الرَّجُلِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ الرَّجُلِ مِثْلَيْهِ قَدْرَ مَا يَسِيرُ الرَّاكِبُ سَيْرَ الْعَنَقِ إِلَى ذِي الْحُلَيْفَةِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ إِلَى ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ أَوْ نِصْفِ اللَّيْلِ - شَكَّ زَيْدٌ - ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْفَجْرَ فَأَسْفَرَ ‏.‏
Jabir bin 'Abdullah said:
"Jibril, peace be upon him, came to the Prophet (PBUH) when the sun had passed its zenith and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray Zuhr when the sun has passed its zenith.' Then he waited until a man's shadow was equal to his height. Then he came to him for 'Asr and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray 'Asr.' Then he waited until the sunset, then he came to him and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray Maghrib.' So he got up and prayed it when the sun had set. Then he waited until the twilight disappeared, then he came to him and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray 'Isha'.' So he got up and prayed it. Then he came to him when dawn broke and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.' So he got up and prayed Subh.' So he got up and prayed Subh. Then he came to him the next day when a man's shadow was equal to his height, and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.' So he prayed Zuhr. Then Jibril came to him when a man's shadow was equal to twice his length and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.' So he prayed 'Asr. Then he came to him for Maghrib when the sun set, at exactly the same time as the day before, and said: 'Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.' So he prayed Maghrib. Then he came to him for 'Isha' when the first third of the night had passed, and said: 'Get up and pray.' So he prayed 'Isha'. Then he came to him for Subh when it had become very bright, and said: 'Get up and pray.' So he prayed Subh. Then he said: 'The times of prayer one between those two (limits).'"
أَخْبَرَنَا سُوَيْدُ بْنُ نَصْرٍ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، عَنْ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي وَهْبُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا جَابِرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ جَاءَ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَقَالَ قُمْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَصَلِّ الظُّهْرَ حِينَ مَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ ثُمَّ مَكَثَ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ فَىْءُ الرَّجُلِ مِثْلَهُ جَاءَهُ لِلْعَصْرِ فَقَالَ قُمْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَصَلِّ الْعَصْرَ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ مَكَثَ حَتَّى إِذَا غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ جَاءَهُ فَقَالَ قُمْ فَصَلِّ الْمَغْرِبَ فَقَامَ فَصَلاَّهَا حِينَ غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ سَوَاءً ثُمَّ مَكَثَ حَتَّى إِذَا ذَهَبَ الشَّفَقُ جَاءَهُ فَقَالَ قُمْ فَصَلِّ الْعِشَاءَ ‏.‏ فَقَامَ فَصَلاَّهَا ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ حِينَ سَطَعَ الْفَجْرُ فِي الصُّبْحِ فَقَالَ قُمْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَصَلِّ ‏.‏ فَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الصُّبْحَ ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ مِنَ الْغَدِ حِينَ كَانَ فَىْءُ الرَّجُلِ مِثْلَهُ فَقَالَ قُمْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَصَلِّ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ حِينَ كَانَ فَىْءُ الرَّجُلِ مِثْلَيْهِ فَقَالَ قُمْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَصَلِّ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى الْعَصْرَ ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ لِلْمَغْرِبِ حِينَ غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَقْتًا وَاحِدًا لَمْ يَزُلْ عَنْهُ فَقَالَ قُمْ فَصَلِّ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ لِلْعِشَاءِ حِينَ ذَهَبَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الأَوَّلُ ...
It was narrated that 'Amr bin 'Abasah said:
"I came to the Messenger of Allah, who became Muslim with you?' He said: 'Free men and slaves.' I said: 'Is there any moment which brings one closer to Allah than another?' He said: 'Yes, the last part of the night, so pray as much as you want until you pray Subh, then stop until the sun has risen until and it looks like a shield and (its shinning)spreads. Then pray as much as you want until an object's shadow is at its shortest, then stop until the sun passes its zenith, for Hell is stoked at midday. Then pray 'Asr, then stop until you pray 'Asr, then stop until the sun has set, for it sets between the horns of a Shaitan and rises between the horns of a Shaitan.'" [1] [1] Similar has been recorded by Muslim.
أَخْبَرَنِي الْحَسَنُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ، وَأَيُّوبُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ أَيُّوبُ حَدَّثَنَا وَقَالَ، حَسَنٌ أَخْبَرَنِي شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ يَعْلَى بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ طَلْقٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْبَيْلَمَانِيِّ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَبَسَةَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ مَعَكَ قَالَ ‏"‏ حُرٌّ وَعَبْدٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ هَلْ مِنْ سَاعَةٍ أَقْرَبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ أُخْرَى قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ جَوْفُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ فَصَلِّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ حَتَّى تُصَلِّيَ الصُّبْحَ ثُمَّ انْتَهِ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ وَمَا دَامَتْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَيُّوبُ فَمَا دَامَتْ ‏"‏ كَأَنَّهَا حَجَفَةٌ حَتَّى تَنْتَشِرَ ثُمَّ صَلِّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ حَتَّى يَقُومَ الْعَمُودُ عَلَى ظِلِّهِ ثُمَّ انْتَهِ حَتَّى تَزُولَ الشَّمْسُ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ تُسْجَرُ نِصْفَ النَّهَارِ ثُمَّ صَلِّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ حَتَّى تُصَلِّيَ الْعَصْرَ ثُمَّ انْتَهِ حَتَّى تَغْرُبَ الشَّمْسُ فَإِنَّهَا تَغْرُبُ بَيْنَ قَرْنَىْ شَيْطَانٍ وَتَطْلُعُ بَيْنَ قَرْنَىْ شَيْطَانٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated that ‘Amr bin ‘Abasah said:
“I came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said: ‘Is there any time that is more beloved to Allah than another?’ He said: ‘Yes, the middle of the night, so pray as much as you want until dawn comes. Then refrain from praying until the sun has risen, and as long as it looks like a shield until it becomes apparent. Then pray as much as you want until a pole stands on its shadow (i.e., noon), then refrain from praying until it has crossed the zenith, for Hell is heated up at midday. Then pray as much as you want until you pray ‘Asr, then refrain from praying until the sun has set, for it sets between the two horns of Satan and it rises between the two horns of Satan.’”
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، عَنْ يَعْلَى بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ طَلْقٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْبَيْلَمَانِيِّ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَبَسَةَ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فَقُلْتُ هَلْ مِنْ سَاعَةٍ أَحَبُّ إِلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ أُخْرَى قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ جَوْفُ اللَّيْلِ الأَوْسَطُ فَصَلِّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ حَتَّى يَطْلُعَ الصُّبْحُ ثُمَّ انْتَهِ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ وَمَا دَامَتْ كَأَنَّهَا حَجَفَةٌ حَتَّى تَنْتَشِرَ ثُمَّ صَلِّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ حَتَّى يَقُومَ الْعَمُودُ عَلَى ظِلِّهِ ثُمَّ انْتَهِ حَتَّى تَزُولَ الشَّمْسُ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ تُسْجَرُ نِصْفَ النَّهَارِ ثُمَّ صَلِّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ حَتَّى تُصَلِّيَ الْعَصْرَ ثُمَّ انْتَهِ حَتَّى تَغْرُبَ الشَّمْسُ فَإِنَّهَا تَغْرُبُ بَيْنَ قَرْنَىِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَتَطْلُعُ بَيْنَ قَرْنَىِ الشَّيْطَانِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
It was narrated from Jabir bin 'Abdullah that Jibril came to the Prophet (PBUH) to teach him the times of prayer. Jibril went forward, with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) behind him and the people behind the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and he prayed Zurh when the sun had passed its zenith. Then he came to him when the shadow of a person was equal to his height, and did as he had done before; Jibril went forward, with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) behind him and the people behind the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and he prayed 'Asr. Then Jibril came to him when the sun had set; Jibril went forward, with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) behind him and the people behind the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and he prayed Al-Ghadah. [1] Then he came to him on the second day when a man's shadow was equal to his height, and did as he had done the day before, he prayed Zuhr. Then he came to him when the shadow of a man was twice his height, and did what he had done the day before, and prayed 'Asr. Then he came to him when the sun had set and did what he had done the day before, and prayed Maghrib. Then we slept and got up, and slept and got up again. Then he came to him and did what he had done the day before and prayed 'Isha.' The he came to him when the (the light of) dawn was spread (on the horizon) [2] and the starts were still clear in the sky, and he did the same as he had done the day before, and prayed Al-Ghadah. Then he said:
' The time between these two is the time for prayer.'" [1] Meaning Fajr, the morning prayer. [2] The Fajr prayer was elongated because the Prophet recited at length during the prayer, so that it ended just before sunrise. That defined the end of the time for Fajr, as the beginning of the time was defined by the moment when he started the first Rak'ah.
أَخْبَرَنَا يُوسُفُ بْنُ وَاضِحٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا قُدَامَةُ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ شِهَابٍ - عَنْ بُرْدٍ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبَاحٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّ جِبْرِيلَ، أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَلِّمُهُ مَوَاقِيتَ الصَّلاَةِ فَتَقَدَّمَ جِبْرِيلُ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَلْفَهُ وَالنَّاسُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ حِينَ زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَأَتَاهُ حِينَ كَانَ الظِّلُّ مِثْلَ شَخْصِهِ فَصَنَعَ كَمَا صَنَعَ فَتَقَدَّمَ جِبْرِيلُ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَلْفَهُ وَالنَّاسُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى الْعَصْرَ ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ حِينَ وَجَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَتَقَدَّمَ جِبْرِيلُ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَلْفَهُ وَالنَّاسُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ حِينَ غَابَ الشَّفَقُ فَتَقَدَّمَ جِبْرِيلُ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَلْفَهُ وَالنَّاسُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ حِينَ انْشَقَّ الْفَجْرُ فَتَقَدَّمَ جِبْرِيلُ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَلْفَهُ وَالنَّاسُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى الْغَدَاةَ ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ الْيَوْمَ الثَّانِيَ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ الرَّجُلِ مِثْلَ شَخْصِهِ فَصَنَعَ مِثْلَ مَا صَنَعَ بِالأَمْسِ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ الرَّجُلِ ...
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi', the mawla of Abdullah ibn Umar, that Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to his governors saying, "The most important of your affairs in my view is the prayer. Whoever protects it and observes it carefully is protecting his deen, while whoever is negligent about it will be even more negligent about other things." Then he added, "Pray dhuhr any time from when the afternoon shade is the length of your forearm until the length of your shadow matches your height. Pray asr when the sun is still pure white, so that a rider can travel two or three farsakhs before the sun sets. Pray maghrib when the sun has set. Pray isha any time from when the redness in the western sky has disappeared until a third of the night has passed - and a person who sleeps, may he have no rest, a person who sleeps, may he have no rest. And pray subh when all the stars are visible and like a haze in the sky."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، مَوْلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، كَتَبَ إِلَى عُمَّالِهِ إِنَّ أَهَمَّ أَمْرِكُمْ عِنْدِي الصَّلاَةُ فَمَنْ حَفِظَهَا وَحَافَظَ عَلَيْهَا حَفِظَ دِينَهُ وَمَنْ ضَيَّعَهَا فَهُوَ لِمَا سِوَاهَا أَضْيَعُ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ كَتَبَ أَنْ صَلُّوا الظُّهْرَ إِذَا كَانَ الْفَىْءُ ذِرَاعًا إِلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ ظِلُّ أَحَدِكُمْ مِثْلَهُ وَالْعَصْرَ وَالشَّمْسُ مُرْتَفِعَةٌ بَيْضَاءُ نَقِيَّةٌ قَدْرَ مَا يَسِيرُ الرَّاكِبُ فَرْسَخَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاَثَةً قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ وَالْمَغْرِبَ إِذَا غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَالْعِشَاءَ إِذَا غَابَ الشَّفَقُ إِلَى ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ فَمَنْ نَامَ فَلاَ نَامَتْ عَيْنُهُ فَمَنْ نَامَ فَلاَ نَامَتْ عَيْنُهُ فَمَنْ نَامَ فَلاَ نَامَتْ عَيْنُهُ وَالصَّبْحَ وَالنُّجُومُ بَادِيَةٌ مُشْتَبِكَةٌ ‏.‏
Abu Najih 'Amr bin 'Abasah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
In the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance, I used to think that people who used to worship idols, were deviated and did not adhere to the true religion. Then I heard of a man in Makkah who was preaching a message. So I mounted my camel and went to him. I found that (this man who was) Messenger of Allah (PBUH) remained hidden because of the persecution by his people. I had entered Makkah stealthily and when I met him I asked him, "Who are you?" He (PBUH) said, "I am a Prophet." I asked; "What is a Prophet?" He said, "Allah has sent me (with a message)". I asked, "With what has He sent you?" He said, "He sent me to strengthen the ties of kinship, to destroy idols so that Allah alone should be worshipped and nothing should be associated with Him". I asked, "Who has followed you in this?" He said, "A freeman and a slave". (At that time only Abu Bakr and Bilal (May Allah be pleased with her) were with him). I said, "I shall follow you". He said, "You can not do that now. Do you not see my situation and that of the people? Go to your people, and when you hear that my cause has prevailed, come to me". So I went back to my people, and while I was with my people, Messenger of Allah (PBUH) emigrated to Al-Madinah. I continued to ask people about him till some of my people visited Al- Madinah. On their return, I asked them, "How is that man who has arrived in Al-Madinah faring?" They said, "People are hastening to him. His own people had planned to kill him but did not succeed." Then I went to Al-Madinah and came to him and said, "O Messenger of Allah, do you recognize me?" He (PBUH) said, "Yes, you are the one who met me in Makkah." I said, "O Messenger of Allah, tell me of that which Allah has taught you and of which I am unaware. Tell me about Salat first." He (PBUH) replied, "Perform the Fajr (morning) Salat, then stop Salat until the sun has risen up to the height of a lance, for when it rises, it rises up between the horns of the devil, and the infidels prostrate themselves before it at that time. Then perform Salat, for Salat is witnessed and angels attend it, until the shadow becomes equal to the length of its object; then stop Salat, for at that time Jahannam (Hell) is heated up. Then pray when the shadow becomes longer, for the prayer is witnessed and angels attend it, until you perform 'Asr prayer; then stop Salat till sun sets, for it sets between the horns of a devil. At that time the infidels prostrate themselves before it." I then asked the Messenger of Allah to tell me about Wudu', and he (PBUH) said, "When a person begins the Wudu' and washes his mouth and nose, the sins committed by his face, mouth and nostrils are washed out. Then when he washes his face as commanded by Allah, the sins of his face are washed out with the water from the sides of his beard. Then when he washes his hands up to elbows, the sins of his hands are washed out through his fingers with water. Then he passes his wet hands over his head and the sins of the head are washed out through the ends of his hair with water. Then he washes his feet up to the ankles, the sins of his feet are washed out through his toes with water. Then, if he stands up for Salat and praises Allah, glorifies Him, proclaims His Greatness as He deserves and devotes his heart wholly to Allah, he emerges sin free as the day he was born".When 'Amr bin 'Abasah (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated this Hadith to Abu Umamah (May Allah be pleased with him) a Companion of the Prophet (PBUH), the latter said to him, "Watch what you are saying. O 'Amr bin 'Abasah, a man will be getting all of this in one shot?" 'Amr (May Allah be pleased with him) replied, "O Abu Umamah, I have attained old age, my bones have become dry, my death is approaching and there is no need for me to tell lies concerning Allah and His Messenger (PBUH). Had I not heard this from the Messenger of Allah only once, twice, thrice (and he counted up to seven) I would never have reported it. Indeed I have heard this frequently".[Muslim].
- وعن أبي نجيح عمرو بن عبسة -بفتح العين والباء- السلمي، رضي الله عنه ، قال‏:‏ كنت وأنا في الجاهلية أظن أن الناس على ضلالة، وأنهم ليسوا على شئ، وهم يعبدون الأوثان، فسمعت برجل بمكة يخبر أخباراً، فقعدت على راحلتى، فقدمت عليه، فإذا رسول الله ، صلى الله عليه وسلم مستخفياً، جرءاء عليه قومه ، فتلطف حتى دخلت عليه بمكة، فقلت له ‏:‏ ما أنت‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏أنا نبي‏"‏ قلت‏:‏ وما نبي ‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏أرسلني الله‏"‏ قلت‏:‏ وبأي شئ أرسك‏؟‏ قال ‏"‏أرسلني بصلة الأرحام، وكسر الأوثان وأن يوحد الله لا يشرك به شئ‏:‏ قلت‏:‏ فمن معك على هذا‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏حر وعبد‏"‏ ومعه يومئذ أبو بكر وبلال، رضي الله عنهما، قلت‏:‏ إني متبعك، قال‏:‏ ‏"‏إنك لن تستطيع ذلك يومك هذا، ألا ترى حالي وحال الناس‏؟‏ ولكن ارجع إلى أهلك فإذا سمعت بي قد ظهرت فأتني‏"‏ قال‏:‏ فذهبت إلى أهلي وقدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، المدينة، وكنت في أهلي، فجعلت أتخبر الأخبار، واسأل الناس حين قدم المدينة حتى قدم نفر من أهلي المدينة، فقلت‏:‏ ما فعل هذا الرجل الذي قدم المدينة‏؟‏ فقالوا‏:‏ الناس إليه سراع، وقد أراد قومه قتله، فلم يستطيعوا ذلك، فقدمت المدينة، فدخلت عليه، فقلت‏:‏ يا رسول الله أتعرفني‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ‏"‏نعم أنتالذي لقيتني بمكة‏"‏ قال‏:‏ فقلت يا رسول الله أخبرني عما علمك الله وأجهله، أخبرنى عن الصلاة‏؟‏ قال ‏:‏” صل صلاة الصبح، ثم أقصر عن الصلاة حتى ترتفع الشمس قيد رمح، فإنه تطلع حين تطلع بين قرني شيطان، وحينئذ يسجد لها الكفار، ثم صل فإن الصلاة مشهودة محضورة حتى يستقل الظل بالرمح، ثم أقصر عن الصلاة، ...