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It was narrated from ‘Awf bin Malik Al-Ashja’i that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
“There will be a treaty between you and Banu Asfar (The Romans), but they will betray you and will march against you with eighty banners, under each of which there will be twelve thousand troops.”
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ، حَدَّثَنِي بُسْرُ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو إِدْرِيسَ الْخَوْلاَنِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي عَوْفُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ الأَشْجَعِيُّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏ "‏ تَكُونُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ هُدْنَةٌ فَيَغْدِرُونَ بِكُمْ فَيَسِيرُونَ إِلَيْكُمْ فِي ثَمَانِينَ غَايَةً تَحْتَ كُلِّ غَايَةٍ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَلْفًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Marwan al-Asfar said:
I saw Ibn Umar make his camel kneel down facing the qiblah, then he sat down urinating in its direction. So I said: AbuAbdurRahman, has this not been forbidden? He replied: Why not, that was forbidden only in open country; but when there is something between you and the qiblah that conceals you , then there is no harm.
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ فَارِسٍ، حَدَّثَنَا صَفْوَانُ بْنُ عِيسَى، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ ذَكْوَانَ، عَنْ مَرْوَانَ الأَصْفَرِ، قَالَ رَأَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ أَنَاخَ رَاحِلَتَهُ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ ثُمَّ جَلَسَ يَبُولُ إِلَيْهَا فَقُلْتُ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ نُهِيَ عَنْ هَذَا قَالَ بَلَى إِنَّمَا نُهِيَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فِي الْفَضَاءِ فَإِذَا كَانَ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الْقِبْلَةِ شَىْءٌ يَسْتُرُكَ فَلاَ بَأْسَ ‏.‏
Narrated Ibn `Abbas:
Abu Sufyan said, "Heraclius sent for me when I was in 'llya' (i.e. Jerusalem). Then he asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle and when he had finished its reading there was a great hue and cry around him and the voices grew louder and we were asked to quit the place. When we were turned out, I said to my companions, 'The cause of Ibn Abi Kabsha has become conspicuous as the King of Bani Al- Asfar is afraid of him.' "
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ هِرَقْلَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ بِإِيلِيَاءَ، ثُمَّ دَعَا بِكِتَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ مِنْ قِرَاءَةِ الْكِتَابِ كَثُرَ عِنْدَهُ الصَّخَبُ، فَارْتَفَعَتِ الأَصْوَاتُ، وَأُخْرِجْنَا، فَقُلْتُ لأَصْحَابِي حِينَ أُخْرِجْنَا لَقَدْ أَمِرَ أَمْرُ ابْنِ أَبِي كَبْشَةَ، إِنَّهُ يَخَافُهُ مَلِكُ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ‏.‏
Narrated `Auf bin Mali:
I went to the Prophet during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, "Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.
حَدَّثَنَا الْحُمَيْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ بْنِ زَبْرٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ بُسْرَ بْنَ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا إِدْرِيسَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَوْفَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ أَتَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي غَزْوَةِ تَبُوكَ، وَهْوَ فِي قُبَّةٍ مِنْ أَدَمٍ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ اعْدُدْ سِتًّا بَيْنَ يَدَىِ السَّاعَةِ، مَوْتِي، ثُمَّ فَتْحُ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ، ثُمَّ مُوتَانٌ يَأْخُذُ فِيكُمْ كَقُعَاصِ الْغَنَمِ، ثُمَّ اسْتِفَاضَةُ الْمَالِ حَتَّى يُعْطَى الرَّجُلُ مِائَةَ دِينَارٍ فَيَظَلُّ سَاخِطًا، ثُمَّ فِتْنَةٌ لاَ يَبْقَى بَيْتٌ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ إِلاَّ دَخَلَتْهُ، ثُمَّ هُدْنَةٌ تَكُونُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ فَيَغْدِرُونَ، فَيَأْتُونَكُمْ تَحْتَ ثَمَانِينَ غَايَةً، تَحْتَ كُلِّ غَايَةٍ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَلْفًا ‏"‏‏.‏
It was narrated from Kathir bin ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin ‘Awf, from his father, that his grandfather said:
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: ‘The Hour will not begin until the closest Muslim outpost will be at Baula’.’ Then he said: ‘O ‘Ali, O ‘Ali, O ‘Ali.’ He (‘Ali) said: ‘May my father and mother be ransomed for you.’ He said: ‘You will fight Banu Asfar (the Romans) and those who come after you will fight them, until the best of the Muslims go out to fight them, the people of Hijaz who do not fear the blame of anyone for the sake of Allah. They will conquer Constantinople with Tasbih and Takbir and will acquire such spoils of war as has never been seen before, which they will distribute by the shieldful. Someone will come and say: “Masih has appeared in your land!” But he will be lying, so the one who takes (some of the spoils) will regret it, and the one who leaves it behind will regret it too.’”
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مَيْمُونٍ الرَّقِّيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو يَعْقُوبَ الْحُنَيْنِيُّ، عَنْ كَثِيرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏"‏ لاَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى تَكُونَ أَدْنَى مَسَالِحِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ بِبَوْلاَءَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏"‏ يَا عَلِيُّ يَا عَلِيُّ يَا عَلِيُّ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ بِأَبِي وَأُمِّي ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ إِنَّكُمْ سَتُقَاتِلُونَ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ وَيُقَاتِلُهُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِكُمْ حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ رُوقَةُ الإِسْلاَمِ أَهْلُ الْحِجَازِ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَخَافُونَ فِي اللَّهِ لَوْمَةَ لاَئِمٍ فَيَفْتَتِحُونَ الْقُسْطُنْطِينِيَّةَ بِالتَّسْبِيحِ وَالتَّكْبِيرِ فَيُصِيبُونَ غَنَائِمَ لَمْ يُصِيبُوا مِثْلَهَا حَتَّى يَقْتَسِمُوا بِالأَتْرِسَةِ وَيَأْتِي آتٍ فَيَقُولُ إِنَّ الْمَسِيحَ قَدْ خَرَجَ فِي بِلاَدِكُمْ أَلاَ وَهِيَ كِذْبَةٌ فَالآخِذُ نَادِمٌ وَالتَّارِكُ نَادِمٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Narrated `Abdullah bin `Abbas:
Allah's Apostle wrote to Caesar and invited him to Islam and sent him his letter with Dihya Al-Kalbi whom Allah's Apostle ordered to hand it over to the Governor of Busra who would forward it to Caesar. Caesar as a sign of gratitude to Allah, had walked from Hims to Ilya (i.e. Jerusalem) when Allah had granted Him victory over the Persian forces. So, when the letter of Allah's Apostle reached Caesar, he said after reading it, 'Seek for me any one of his people! (Arabs of Quraish tribe) if present here, in order to ask him about Allah's Apostle. At that time Abu Sufyan bin Harb was in Sham with some men frown Quraish who had come (to Sham) as merchants during the truce that had been concluded between Allah's Apostle; and the infidels of Quraish. Abu Sufyan said, Caesar's messenger found us somewhere in Sham so he took me and my companions to Ilya and we were admitted into Ceasar's court to find him sitting in his royal court wearing a crown and surrounded by the senior dignitaries of the Byzantine. He said to his translator. 'Ask them who amongst them is a close relation to the man who claims to be a prophet." Abu Sufyan added, "I replied, 'I am the nearest relative to him.' He asked, 'What degree of relationship do you have with him?' I replied, 'He is my cousin,' and there was none of Bani Abu Manaf in the caravan except myself. Caesar said, 'Let him come nearer.' He then ordered that my companions stand behind me near my shoulder and said to his translator, 'Tell his companions that I am going to ask this man about the man who claims to be a prophet. If he tells a lie, they should contradict him immediately." Abu Sufyan added, "By Allah! Had it not been shameful that my companions label me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about him when he asked me. But I considered it shameful to be called a liar by my companions. So I told the truth. He then said to his translator, 'Ask him what kind of family does he belong to.' I replied, 'He belongs to a noble family amongst us.' He said, 'Have anybody else amongst you ever claimed the same before him? 'I replied, 'No.' He said, 'Had you ever blamed him for telling lies before he claimed what he claimed? ' I replied, 'No.' He said, 'Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?' I replied, 'No.' He said, "Do the noble or the poor follow him?' I replied, 'It is the poor who follow him.' He said, 'Are they increasing or decreasing (day by day)?' I replied,' They are increasing.' He said, 'Does anybody amongst those who embrace his (the Prophet's) Religion become displeased and then discard his Religion?'. I replied, 'No. ' He said, 'Does he break his promises? I replied, 'No, but we are now at truce with him and we are afraid that he may betray us." Abu Sufyan added, "Other than the last sentence, I could not say anything against him. Caesar then asked, 'Have you ever had a war with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'What was the outcome of your battles with him?' I replied, 'The result was unstable; sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.' He said, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He tells us to worship Allah alone, and not to worship others along with Him, and to leave all that our fore-fathers used to worship. He orders us to pray, give in charity, be chaste, keep promises and return what is entrusted to us.' When I had said that, Caesar said to his translator, 'Say to him: I ask you about his lineage and your reply was that he belonged to a noble family. In fact, all the apostles came from the noblest lineage of their nations. Then I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you had claimed such a thing, and your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following a claim that had been said before him. When I asked you whether he was ever blamed for telling lies, your reply was in the negative, so I took it for granted that a person who did not tell a lie about (others) the people could never tell a lie about Allah. Then I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. When I asked you whether the rich or the poor people followed him, you replied that it was the poor who followed him. In fact, such are the followers of the apostles. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing. In fact, this is the result of true faith till it is complete (in all respects). I asked you whether there was anybody who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion; your reply was in the negative. In fact, this is the sign of true faith, for when its cheerfulness enters and mixes in the hearts completely, nobody will be displeased with it. I asked you whether he had ever broken his promise. You replied in the negative. And such are the apostles; they never break their promises. When I asked you whether you fought with him and he fought with you, you replied that he did, and that sometimes he was victorious and sometimes you. Indeed, such are the apostles; they are put to trials and the final victory is always theirs. Then I asked you what he ordered you. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah alone and not to worship others along with Him, to leave all that your fore-fathers used to worship, to offer prayers, to speak the truth, to be chaste, to keep promises, and to return what is entrusted to you. These are really the qualities of a prophet who, I knew (from the previous Scriptures) would appear, but I did not know that he would be from amongst you. If what you say should be true, he will very soon occupy the earth under my feet, and if I knew that I would reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet Him; and were I with him, then I would certainly wash his feet.' " Abu Sufyan added, "Caesar then asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle and it was read. Its contents were: "In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle, to Heraculius, the Ruler of the Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then, I invite you to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allah), embrace Islam and you will be safe; embrace Islam and Allah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation of Islam, you shall be responsible for misguiding the peasants (i.e. your nation). O people of the Scriptures! Come to a word common to you and us and you, that we worship. None but Allah, and that we associate nothing in worship with Him; and that none of us shall take others as Lords besides Allah. Then if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are (they who have surrendered (unto Him)..(3.64) Abu Sufyan added, "When Heraclius had finished his speech, there was a great hue and cry caused by the Byzantine Royalties surrounding him, and there was so much noise that I did not understand what they said. So, we were turned out of the court. When I went out with my companions and we were alone, I said to them, 'Verily, Ibn Abi Kabsha's (i.e. the Prophet's) affair has gained power. This is the King of Bani Al-Asfar fearing him." Abu Sufyan added, "By Allah, I remained low and was sure that his religion would be victorious till Allah converted me to Islam, though I disliked it."
حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ حَمْزَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ كَيْسَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَتَبَ إِلَى قَيْصَرَ يَدْعُوهُ إِلَى الإِسْلاَمِ، وَبَعَثَ بِكِتَابِهِ إِلَيْهِ مَعَ دِحْيَةَ الْكَلْبِيِّ، وَأَمَرَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ يَدْفَعَهُ إِلَى عَظِيمِ بُصْرَى لِيَدْفَعَهُ إِلَى قَيْصَرَ، وَكَانَ قَيْصَرُ لَمَّا كَشَفَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ جُنُودَ فَارِسَ مَشَى مِنْ حِمْصَ إِلَى إِيلِيَاءَ، شُكْرًا لِمَا أَبْلاَهُ اللَّهُ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ قَيْصَرَ كِتَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ حِينَ قَرَأَهُ الْتَمِسُوا لِي هَا هُنَا أَحَدًا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ لأَسْأَلَهُمْ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ فَأَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سُفْيَانَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ بِالشَّأْمِ فِي رِجَالٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ، قَدِمُوا تِجَارًا فِي الْمُدَّةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ بَيْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَبَيْنَ كُفَّارِ قُرَيْشٍ، قَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَوَجَدَنَا رَسُولُ قَيْصَرَ بِبَعْضِ الشَّأْمِ فَانْطَلَقَ بِي وَبِأَصْحَابِي حَتَّى قَدِمْنَا إِيلِيَاءَ، فَأُدْخِلْنَا عَلَيْهِ، فَإِذَا هُوَ جَالِسٌ فِي مَجْلِسِ مُلْكِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ التَّاجُ، وَإِذَا حَوْلَهُ عُظَمَاءُ الرُّومِ فَقَالَ لِتُرْجُمَانِهِ ...
Narrated Ibn `Abbas:
Abu Sufyan narrated to me personally, saying, "I set out during the Truce that had been concluded between me and Allah's Apostle. While I was in Sham, a letter sent by the Prophet was brought to Heraclius. Dihya Al-Kalbi had brought and given it to the governor of Busra, and the latter forwarded it to Heraclius. Heraclius said, 'Is there anyone from the people of this man who claims to be a prophet?' The people replied, 'Yes.' So I along with some of Quraishi men were called and we entered upon Heraclius, and we were seated in front of him. Then he said, 'Who amongst you is the nearest relative to the man who claims to be a prophet?' So they made me sit in front of him and made my companions sit behind me. Then he called upon his translator and said (to him). 'Tell them ( i.e. Abu Sufyan's companions) that I am going to ask him (i.e. Abu Sufyan) regarding that man who claims to be a prophet. So, if he tell me a lie, they should contradict him (instantly).' By Allah, had I not been afraid that my companions would consider me a liar, I would have told lies. Heraclius then said to his translator, 'Ask him: What is his (i.e. the Prophet's) family status amongst you? I said, 'He belongs to a noble family amongst us." Heraclius said, 'Was any of his ancestors a king?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Did you ever accuse him of telling lies before his saying what he has said?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Do the nobles follow him or the poor people?' I said, 'It is the poor who followed him.' He said, 'Is the number of his follower increasing or decreasing?' I said, 'The are increasing.' He said, 'Does anyone renounce his religion (i.e. Islam) after embracing it, being displeased with it?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Did you fight with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'How was your fighting with him?' I said, 'The fighting between us was undecided and victory was shared by him and us by turns. He inflicts casualties upon us and we inflict casualties upon him.' He said, 'Did he ever betray?' I said, 'No, but now we are away from him in this truce and we do not know what he will do in it" Abu Sufyan added, "By Allah, I was not able to insert in my speech a word (against him) except that. Heraclius said, 'Did anybody else (amongst you) ever claimed the same (i.e. Islam) before him? I said, 'No.' Then Heraclius told his translator to tell me (i.e. Abu Sufyan), 'I asked you about his family status amongst you, and you told me that he comes from a noble family amongst you Verily, all Apostles come from the noblest family among their people. Then I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king, and you denied that. Thereupon I thought that had one of his fore-fathers been a king, I would have said that he (i.e. Muhammad) was seeking to rule the kingdom of his fore-fathers. Then I asked you regarding his followers, whether they were the noble or the poor among the people, and you said that they were only the poor (who follow him). In fact, such are the followers of the Apostles. Then I asked you whether you have ever accused him of telling lies before saying what he said, and your reply was in the negative. Therefore, I took for granted that a man who did not tell a lie about others, could ever tell a lie about Allah. Then I asked you whether anyone of his followers had renounced his religion (i.e. Islam) after embracing it, being displeased with it, and you denied that. And such is Faith when it mixes with the cheerfulness of the hearts. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You claimed that they were increasing. That is the way of true faith till it is complete. Then I asked you whether you had ever fought with him, and you claimed that you had fought with him and the battle between you and him was undecided and the victory was shared by you and him in turns; he inflicted casual ties upon you and you inflicted casualties upon them. Such is the case with the Apostles; they are out to test and the final victory is for them. Then I asked you whether he had ever betrayed; you claimed that he had never betrayed. I need, Apostles never betray. Then I asked you whether anyone had said this statement before him; and you denied that. Thereupon I thought if somebody had said that statement before him, then I would have said that he was but a man copying some sayings said before him." Abu Safyan said, "Heraclius then asked me, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He orders us (to offer) prayers and (to pay) Zakat and to keep good relationship with the Kith and kin and to be chaste.' Then Heraclius said, 'If whatever you have said, is true, he is really a prophet, and I knew that he ( i.e. the Prophet ) was going to appear, but I never thought that he would be from amongst you. If I were certain that I can reach him, I would like to meet him and if I were with him, I would wash his feet; and his kingdom will expand (surely to what is under my feet.' Then Heraclius asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle and read it wherein was written: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. This letter is) from Muhammad, Apostle of Allah, to Heraclius, the sovereign of Byzantine........ Peace be upon him who follows the Right Path. Now then, I call you to embrace Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be saved (from Allah's Punishment); embrace Islam, and Allah will give you a double reward, but if you reject this, you will be responsible for the sins of all the people of your kingdom (Allah's Statement):--"O the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship None but Allah....bear witness that we are Muslims.' (3.64) When he finished reading the letter, voices grew louder near him and there was a great hue and cry, and we were ordered to go out." Abu Sufyan added, "While coming out, I said to my companions, 'The situation of Ibn Abu Kabsha (i.e. Muhammad) has become strong; even the king of Banu Al14 Asfar is afraid of him.' So I continued to believe that Allah's Apostle would be victorious, till Allah made me embrace Islam." Az-Zuhri said, "Heraclius then invited all the chiefs of the Byzantines and had them assembled in his house and said, 'O group of Byzantines! Do you wish to have a permanent success and guidance and that your kingdom should remain with you?' (Immediately after hearing that), they rushed towards the gate like onagers, but they found them closed. Heraclius then said, 'Bring them back to me.' So he called them and said, 'I just wanted to test the strength of your adherence to your religion. Now I have observed of you that which I like.' Then the people fell in prostration before him and became pleased with him." (See Hadith No. 6,Vol 1)
حَدَّثَنِي إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ،‏.‏ وَحَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو سُفْيَانَ، مِنْ فِيهِ إِلَى فِيَّ قَالَ انْطَلَقْتُ فِي الْمُدَّةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ ـ فَبَيْنَا أَنَا بِالشَّأْمِ إِذْ جِيءَ بِكِتَابٍ مِنَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى هِرَقْلَ قَالَ وَكَانَ دِحْيَةُ الْكَلْبِيُّ جَاءَ بِهِ فَدَفَعَهُ إِلَى عَظِيمِ بُصْرَى، فَدَفَعَهُ عَظِيمُ بُصْرَى إِلَى ـ هِرَقْلَ ـ قَالَ فَقَالَ هِرَقْلُ هَلْ هَا هُنَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ قَوْمِ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ فَقَالُوا نَعَمْ‏.‏ قَالَ فَدُعِيتُ فِي نَفَرٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ فَدَخَلْنَا عَلَى هِرَقْلَ، فَأُجْلِسْنَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَيُّكُمْ أَقْرَبُ نَسَبًا مِنْ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ فَقَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا‏.‏ فَأَجْلَسُونِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ، وَأَجْلَسُوا أَصْحَابِي خَلْفِي، ثُمَّ دَعَا بِتُرْجُمَانِهِ فَقَالَ قُلْ لَهُمْ إِنِّي سَائِلٌ هَذَا عَنْ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ، فَإِنْ كَذَبَنِي فَكَذِّبُوهُ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ وَايْمُ اللَّهِ، لَوْلاَ أَنْ يُؤْثِرُوا عَلَىَّ الْكَذِبَ ...
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas:
Abu Sufyan bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah's Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels. So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius's question said to them, "Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?" Abu Sufyan replied, "I am the nearest relative to him (amongst the group)." Heraclius said, "Bring him (Abu Sufyan) close to me and make his companions stand behind him." Abu Sufyan added, Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (The Prophet) and that if I told a lie they (my companions) should contradict me." Abu Sufyan added, "By Allah! Had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was: 'What is his family status amongst you?' I replied, 'He belongs to a good (noble) family amongst us.' Heraclius further asked, 'Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?' I replied, 'No.' He said, 'Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius asked, 'Do the nobles or the poor follow him?' I replied, 'It is the poor who follow him.' He said, 'Are his followers increasing decreasing (day by day)?' I replied, 'They are increasing.' He then asked, 'Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius said, 'Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim (to be a Prophet)?' I replied, 'No. ' Heraclius said, 'Does he break his promises?' I replied, 'No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.' I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that. Heraclius asked, 'Have you ever had a war with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' Then he said, 'What was the outcome of the battles?' I replied, 'Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.' Heraclius said, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our Kith and kin.' Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following, I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing, your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man's statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah. I, then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And in fact all the Apostle have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and in fact this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Apostles never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship any thing along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.' Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah's Apostle which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: "In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allah and His Apostle to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allah's Statement:) 'O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah).' (3:64). Abu Sufyan then added, "When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him. Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islam (i.e. Allah guided me to it)." The sub narrator adds, "Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of llya' (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting ilya' (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some of his priests asked him why he was in that mood? Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, 'At night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (become the conqueror). Who are they who practice circumcision?' The people replied, 'Except the Jews nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be afraid of them (Jews). 'Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.' While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah's Apostle to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, 'Arabs also practice circumcision.' (After hearing that) Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the 'Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs. (a town in Syrian and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came out and said, 'O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet (i.e. embrace Islam).' (On hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the gates of the palace like onagers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realized their hatred towards Islam and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islam, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience. (When they returned) he said, 'What already said was just to test the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.' The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius's story (in connection with his faith).
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ الْحَكَمُ بْنُ نَافِعٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ بْنَ حَرْبٍ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ هِرَقْلَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ فِي رَكْبٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ ـ وَكَانُوا تُجَّارًا بِالشَّأْمِ ـ فِي الْمُدَّةِ الَّتِي كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَادَّ فِيهَا أَبَا سُفْيَانَ وَكُفَّارَ قُرَيْشٍ، فَأَتَوْهُ وَهُمْ بِإِيلِيَاءَ فَدَعَاهُمْ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ، وَحَوْلَهُ عُظَمَاءُ الرُّومِ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُمْ وَدَعَا بِتَرْجُمَانِهِ فَقَالَ أَيُّكُمْ أَقْرَبُ نَسَبًا بِهَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ فَقَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا أَقْرَبُهُمْ نَسَبًا‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَدْنُوهُ مِنِّي، وَقَرِّبُوا أَصْحَابَهُ، فَاجْعَلُوهُمْ عِنْدَ ظَهْرِهِ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِتَرْجُمَانِهِ قُلْ لَهُمْ إِنِّي سَائِلٌ هَذَا عَنْ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ، فَإِنْ كَذَبَنِي فَكَذِّبُوهُ‏.‏ فَوَاللَّهِ لَوْلاَ الْحَيَاءُ مِنْ أَنْ يَأْثِرُوا عَلَىَّ كَذِبًا لَكَذَبْتُ عَنْهُ، ثُمَّ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَا سَأَلَنِي عَنْهُ أَنْ قَالَ كَيْفَ نَسَبُهُ فِيكُمْ قُلْتُ هُوَ فِينَا ذُو نَسَبٍ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ قَالَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ قَطُّ قَبْلَهُ قُلْتُ لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ قُلْتُ لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَشْرَافُ النَّاسِ يَتَّبِعُونَهُ ...