كتاب الْمَسَاجِدِ وَمَوَاضِعِ الصَّلاَةِ
5
The Book of Mosques and Places of Prayer
(45)
Chapter: The prohibition of leaving the masjid once the Mu’adhdhin has called the Adhan
(45)
باب النَّهْىِ عَنِ الْخُرُوجِ، مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ إِذَا أَذَّنَ الْمُؤَذِّنُ ‏

Abu Sha'tha' al-Muharibi reported on the authority of his father, who said:

I heard it from Abu Huraira that he saw a person getting out of the mosque after the call to prayer had been announced. Upon this he remarked: This (man) disobeyed Abu'l-Qasim (ﷺ).
وَحَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ الْمَكِّيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، - هُوَ ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ - عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَشْعَثَ بْنِ أَبِي الشَّعْثَاءِ الْمُحَارِبِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، وَرَأَى، رَجُلاً يَجْتَازُ الْمَسْجِدَ خَارِجًا بَعْدَ الأَذَانِ فَقَالَ أَمَّا هَذَا فَقَدْ عَصَى أَبَا الْقَاسِمِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏
Reference : Sahih Muslim 655 b
In-book reference : Book 5, Hadith 326
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 4, Hadith 1378
  (deprecated numbering scheme)