كتاب الصلاة
4
The Book of Prayers
(8)
Chapter: The Virtue Of the Adhan, And The Shaitan Flees When He Hears It
(8)
باب فَضْلِ الأَذَانِ وَهَرَبِ الشَّيْطَانِ عِنْدَ سَمَاعِهِ ‏
Sahih Muslim 389 c

Suhail reported that his father sent him to Banu Haritha along with a boy or a man. Someone called him by his name from an enclosure. He (thenarrator) said:

The person with me looked towards the enclosure, but saw nothing. I made a mention of that to my father. He said: If I knew that you would meet such a situation I would have never sent you (there), but (bear in wind) whenever you hear such a call (from the evil spirits) pronounce the Adhan. for I have heard Abu Huraira say that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upbn him) said: Whenever Adhan is proclaimed, Satan runs back vehemently.
حَدَّثَنِي أُمَيَّةُ بْنُ بِسْطَامَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ زُرَيْعٍ - حَدَّثَنَا رَوْحٌ، عَنْ سُهَيْلٍ، قَالَ أَرْسَلَنِي أَبِي إِلَى بَنِي حَارِثَةَ - قَالَ - وَمَعِي غُلاَمٌ لَنَا - أَوْ صَاحِبٌ لَنَا - فَنَادَاهُ مُنَادٍ مِنْ حَائِطٍ بِاسْمِهِ - قَالَ - وَأَشْرَفَ الَّذِي مَعِي عَلَى الْحَائِطِ فَلَمْ يَرَ شَيْئًا فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لأَبِي فَقَالَ لَوْ شَعَرْتُ أَنَّكَ تَلْقَى هَذَا لَمْ أُرْسِلْكَ وَلَكِنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتَ صَوْتًا فَنَادِ بِالصَّلاَةِ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ إِذَا نُودِيَ بِالصَّلاَةِ وَلَّى وَلَهُ حُصَاصٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Reference : Sahih Muslim 389 c
In-book reference : Book 4, Hadith 21
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 4, Hadith 755
  (deprecated numbering scheme)