مقدمة المؤلف
Author's Introduction
In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Praise be to God. We praise Him and ask His help and forgiveness, and we seek refuge in God from the evils within us and from our wicked deeds. He whom God guides has no one to lead him astray, and he whom He leads astray has no guide. I testify that there is no god but God, a testimony which is a means of attaining salvation and a guarantee of the exalting of men’s degrees., And I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger whom He sent when the traces of the paths of faith were obliterated, their lights were extinguished, their strength was weakened, and their position was unknown. Then he, to whom be granted the blessings and safe-keeping of God, raised the landmarks which had been cast down, healed by upholding the statement of God's Unity those among the sick who were upon the brink of destruction, made clear the paths of guidance for those who wished to tread them, and displayed the treasures of bliss to those who aimed at possessing them. To proceed: Only by following what has emanated from his mind can one effectively hold fast to his guidance, and only by means of the explanation of what he disclosed can a perfect grip of God's revelation be attained. Kitab al-Masabih, which was composed by the imam, the reviver of the Sunna (Muhyi as-Sunnah is a title given to Baghawi) and subduer of innovation, Abu Muhammad al-Husain b. Mas'ud al-Farra', al-Baghawi, whose degree may God exalt, is the most comprehensive book written on its subject and the one which most effectively deals with unfamiliar and unusual traditions. But he, for whom we pray for God’s good pleasure, was found fault with by some critics for adopting the method of abridgement and omitting the isnads, even though his transmission, he being a reliable authority, is equivalent to an isnad; so because districts with landmarks are not like those which have none, having asked God most high to bless and help me, I marked what he had left unmarked as it was transmitted by the thoroughly versed imams and well-grounded reliable authorities, such as Abu ‘Abdallah Muhammad b. Isma'il al-Bukhari, Abul Husain Muslim b. al-Hajjaj al-Qushairi, Abu ‘Abdallah Malik b. Anas al-Asbahi, Abu ‘Abdallah Muhammad b. Idris al-Shafi‘i, Abu ‘Abdallah Ahmad b. Hanbal ash-Shaibani, Abu ‘Isa Muhammad b. ‘Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud Sulaiman b. al-Ash‘ath as-Sijistani, Abu ‘Abd ar-Rahman Ahmad, b. Shu'aib an-Nasa’i, Abu ‘Abdallah Muhammad b. Yazid Ibn Majah al-Qazwini, Abu Muhammad ‘Abdallah b. ‘Abd ar-Rahman ad-Darimi, Abul Hasan ‘Ali b. ‘Umar ad-Daraqutni, Abu Bakr Ahmad b. al-Husain al-Baihaqi, Abul Hasan Razin b. Mu'awiya al-‘Abdari, and a few others. When I attribute a tradition to them, it is as though I trace it back to the Prophet for whom God’s blessing and safe-keeping is asked, because they have completed the isnad and made it unnecessary for us to do so. I have kept his order of the books and the chapters, following his course regarding them, and I have generally divided every chapter into three sections. The first is what the two shaikhs (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim) or one of them rendered, contenting myself with them because of their high rank in transmission, even if others transmitted the same tradition. The second is what other notable imams cited. The third is what is relevant to the subject of the chapter from corresponding additional material, even if it goes back only to the Companions (people who met and believed in the Prophet) and the Followers (people of the next generation after the companions) regard being paid to the condition laid down. If you miss a tradition in a chapter, it is because I omit it owing to its being repeated; and if you find another tradition part of which is omitted through abridging it, or one to which the full text has been added, I have made such omissions and additions for some important reason. If you find a discrepancy between two sections through someone other than the two shaikhs being mentioned in the first and their being mentioned in the second, know that after I studied the two books, Al-Jam‘ Bain as-Sahihain by al-Humaidi, and Jami‘ al-Usul (by Ibn al-Athir, 544-606 A.H.) relied on the Sahihs of the two shaikhs and their texts. And if you see a discrepancy in the tradition itself, that is because of the variety of the lines of transmission of traditions and the possibility that I may not have examined that version which was followed by the shaikh, for whom God’s good pleasure is prayed. You will find me saying a few times, "I did not find this version in the originals” or, “I found something different from it.” When you come upon such matters, attribute the shortcoming to me, owing to the small extent of my knowledge. God forbid that you should attribute it to the revered shaikh for whom we pray that God may exalt his rank in this world and the next. May God bless him who, when he finds any information about that, draws our attention to it and guides us to the right path. I have not been remiss in energetically examining and investigating to the limit of my powers, and I have handed on that discrepancy as I found it. I have generally explained the aspect of the traditions called gharib, da'if, etc., which he, for whom God’s good pleasure is prayed, indicated. And I have followed him in omitting matters in the originals which he did not indicate, except in some places when I had a purpose in view. You will often find places unmarked, that being where I did not come upon the transmitter, so I left a blank; but if you stumble upon him, put his name in and may God give you a good reward. I have called the book Mishkat al-Masabih, and I ask God to help, aid, guide, guard and facilitate what I purpose and to bestow benefit on me in life and after death, as well as on all men and women who are Muslims. God is my sufficiency, and good is the Trustee. There is no power or strength except in God, the Mighty, the Wise.
بِسم الله الرَّحْمَن الرَّحِيم وَبِه نستعين الْحَمد لله، ونحمده وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُهُ، وَنَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شُرُورِ أَنْفُسِنَا وَمن سيئات أَعمالنَا، من ييهده اللَّهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ. وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ شَهَادَةً تَكُونُ لِلنَّجَاةِ وَسِيلَةً، وَلِرَفْعِ الدَّرَجَاتِ كَفِيلَةً، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، الَّذِي بَعثه وطرق الْإِيمَانِ قَدْ عَفَتْ آثَارُهَا، وَخَبَتْ أَنْوَارُهَا، وَوَهَنَتْ أَرْكَانهَا، وَجَهل مَكَانهَا، فشيد صلوَات الله وسلامة عَلَيْهِ من معالمها مَا عَفا، وشفى من الغليل فِي تَأْيِيدِ كَلِمَةِ التَّوْحِيدِ مَنْ كَانَ عَلَى شفى، وأوضح سَبِيل الهادية لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَسْلُكَهَا، وَأَظْهَرَ كُنُوزَ السَّعَادَةِ لِمَنْ قَصَدَ أَنْ يَمْلِكَهَا. أَمَّا بَعْدُ؛ فَإِنَّ التَّمَسُّكَ بِهَدْيهِ لَا يَسْتَتِبُّ إِلَّا بِالِاقْتِفَاءِ لِمَا صَدَرَ مِنْ مِشْكَاتِهِ، وَالِاعْتِصَامُ بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ لَا يَتِمُّ إِلَّا بِبَيَانِ كَشْفِهِ، وَكَانَ «كِتَابُ الْمَصَابِيحِ» - الَّذِي صَنَّفَهُ الْإِمَامُ مُحْيِي السُّنَّةِ، قَامِعُ الْبِدْعَةِ، أَبُو مُحَمَّد الْحُسَيْن بن مَسْعُود الْفراء الْبَغَوِيُّ، رَفَعَ اللَّهُ دَرَجَتَهُ - أَجْمَعَ كِتَابٍ صُنِّفَ فِي بَابِهِ، وَأَضْبَطَ لِشَوَارِدِ الْأَحَادِيثِ وَأَوَابِدِهَا. وَلَمَّا سلك - رَضِي الله عَنهُ - طَرِيق الِاخْتِصَارَ، وَحَذَفَ الْأَسَانِيدَ؛ تَكَلَّمَ فِيهِ بَعْضُ النُّقَّادِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ نَقْلُهُ - وَإِنَّهُ مِنَ الثِّقَاتِ - كَالْإِسْنَادِ، لَكِنْ لَيْسَ مَا فِيهِ أَعْلَامٌ كالأغفال، فاستخرت الله تَعَالَى، واستوفقت مِنْهُ، فأعلمت مَا أغفله، فأودعت كل حَدِيث مِنْهُ فِي مقره كَمَا رَوَاهُ الْأَئِمَّة المنقنون، وَالثِّقَاتُ الرَّاسِخُونَ؛ مِثْلُ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْبُخَارِيِّ، وَأَبِي الْحُسَيْنِ مُسْلِمِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ الْقُشَيْرَيِّ، وَأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ الْأَصْبَحِيِّ، وَأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِدْرِيسَ الشَّافِعِيِّ، وَأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّد بن حَنْبَل الشَّيْبَانِيّ، وَأبي عِيسَى مُحَمَّد بن عِيسَى التِّرْمِذِيِّ، وَأَبِي دَاوُدَ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ الْأَشْعَثِ السِّجِسْتَانِيِّ، وَأَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ النَّسَائِيِّ، وَأبي عبد الله مُحَمَّد بن يزِيد بن مَاجَهْ الْقَزْوِينِيِّ، وَأَبِي مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الدَّارِمِيِّ، وَأَبِي الْحَسَنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عمر الدَّارَقُطْنِيِّ، وَأَبِي بَكْرٍ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ الْبَيْهَقِيِّ، وَأَبِي الْحَسَنِ رَزِينِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ الْعَبْدَرِيِّ، وَغَيْرِهِمْ وَقَلِيلٌ مَا هُوَ. وَإِنِّي إِذَا نَسَبْتُ الْحَدِيثَ إِلَيْهِمْ كَأَنِّي أَسْنَدْتُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسلم؛ لأَنهم قدفرغوا مِنْهُ، وَأَغْنَوْنَا عَنْهُ. وَسَرَدْتُ الْكُتُبَ وَالْأَبْوَابَ كَمَا سَرَدَهَا، وَاقْتَفَيْتُ أَثَرَهُ فِيهَا، وَقَسَّمْتُ كُلَّ بَابٍ غَالِبًا عَلَى فُصُولٍ ثَلَاثَةٍ: أَوَّلُهَا: مَا أَخْرَجَهُ الشَّيْخَانِ أَوْ أَحَدُهُمَا، وَاكْتَفَيْتُ بِهِمَا وَإِنِ اشْتَرَكَ فِيهِ الْغَيْرُ؛ لِعُلُوِّ دَرَجَتِهِمَا فِي الرِّوَايَةِ. وَثَانِيهَا: مَا أَوْرَدَهُ غَيْرُهُمَا مِنَ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْمَذْكُورِينَ. وَثَالِثُهَا: مَا اشْتَمَلَ عَلَى مَعْنَى الْبَابِ مِنْ محلقات مُنَاسِبَةٍ مَعَ مُحَافَظَةٍ عَلَى الشَّرِيطَةِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ مَأْثُورًا عَنِ السَّلَفِ وَالْخَلَفِ. ثُمَّ إِنَّكَ إِنْ فَقَدْتَ حَدِيثًا فِي بَابٍ؛ فَذَلِكَ عَنْ تَكْرِيرٍ أُسْقِطُهُ. وَإِنْ وَجَدْتَ آخَرَ بَعْضَهُ مَتْرُوكًا عَلَى اخْتِصَارِهِ، أَوْ مَضْمُومًا إِلَيْهِ تَمَامُهُ؛ فَعَنْ دَاعِي اهْتِمَامٍ أَتْرُكُهُ وَأُلْحِقُهُ. وَإِنْ عَثَرْتَ عَلَى اخْتِلَافٍ فِي الْفَصْلَيْنِ مِنْ ذِكْرِ غَيْرِ الشَّيْخَيْنِ فِي الْأَوَّلِ، وَذِكْرِهِمَا فِي الثَّانِي؛ فَاعْلَمْ أَنِّي بَعْدَ تتبعي كتابي «الْجمع بَين الصحيحن» لِلْحُمَيْدِيِّ، وَ «جَامِعَ الْأُصُولِ» ؛ اعْتَمَدْتُ عَلَى صَحِيحَيِ الشَّيْخَيْنِ وَمَتْنَيْهِمَا. وَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ اخْتِلَافًا فِي نَفْسِ الْحَدِيثِ؛ فَذَلِكَ مِنْ تَشَعُّبِ طُرُقِ الْأَحَادِيثِ، وَلَعَلِّي مَا أطلعت على تِلْكَ الرِّوَايَة التس سَلَكَهَا الشَّيْخُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ. وَقَلِيلًا مَا تَجِدُ أَقُولُ: مَا وَجَدْتُ هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةَ فِي كتب وَجَدْتُ خِلَافَهَا فِيهَا. فَإِذَا وَقَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ فَانْسِبِ الْقُصُورَ إِلَيَّ لِقِلَّةِ الدِّرَايَةِ، لَا إِلَى جَنَابِ الشَّيْخِ رَفَعَ اللَّهُ قَدْرَهُ فِي الدَّارَيْنِ، حَاشَا لِلَّهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ. رَحِمَ اللَّهُ مَنْ إِذَا وَقَفَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ نَبَّهَنَا عَلَيْهِ، وَأَرْشَدَنَا طَرِيقَ الصَّوَابِ. وَلَمْ آلُ جُهْدًا فِي التَّنْقِيرِ وَالتَّفْتِيشِ بِقَدْرِ الْوُسْعِ وَالطَّاقَةِ، وَنَقَلْتُ ذَلِكَ الِاخْتِلَافَ كَمَا وجدت. وَمَا أَشَارَ إِلَيْهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ مِنْ غَرِيبٍ أَوْ ضَعِيفٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِمَا؛ بَيَّنْتُ وَجْهَهُ غَالِبًا، وَمَا لَمْ يُشِرْ إِلَيْهِ مِمَّا فِي الْأُصُولِ؛ فَقَدْ قَفَّيْتُهُ فِي تَرْكِهِ، إِلَّا فِي مَوَاضِع لغَرَض. وَرُبمَا تَجِد مَوَاضِع مهملهة، وَذَلِكَ حَيْثُ لم أطلع على رِوَايَة فَتَرَكْتُ الْبَيَاضَ، فَإِنْ عَثَرْتَ عَلَيْهِ فَأَلْحِقْهُ بِهِ، أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ جَزَاءَكُ. وَسَمَّيْتُ الْكِتَابَ. بِ «مِشْكَاةِ الْمَصَابِيحِ» وَأَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ التَّوْفِيقَ وَالْإِعَانَةَ وَالْهِدَايَةَ وَالصِّيَانَةَ، وَتَيْسِيرَ مَا أَقْصِدُهُ، وَأَنْ يَنْفَعَنِي فِي الْحَيَاةِ وَبَعْدَ الْمَمَاتِ، وَجَمِيعَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ. حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ. وَلَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ.
Mishkat al-Masabih 1
‘Umar b. al-Khattab, for whom God’s good pleasure is prayed, reported God’s Messenger, to whom may God’s blessings and safe-keeping be granted, as saying:
“Deeds are to be judged only by intentions, and a man will have only what he intended. When one’s emigration is to God and His Messenger, his emigration is to God and His Messenger; but when his emigration is to a worldly end at which he aims, or to a woman whom he marries, his emigration is to that to which he emigrated.” (Bukhari and Muslim.)
عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّمَا الْأَعْمَال بِالنِّيَّاتِ وَإِنَّمَا لكل امْرِئ مَا نَوَى فَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَهِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى دُنْيَا يُصِيبُهَا أَوِ امْرَأَةٍ يَتَزَوَّجُهَا فَهجرَته إِلَى مَا هَاجر إِلَيْهِ»
  صَحِيح   (الألباني) حكم   :
Reference : Mishkat al-Masabih 1
In-book reference : Introduction, Hadith 1