كتاب الأدب
Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab)
Chapter: Whoever calls his brother a Kafir without any grounds
باب مَنْ كَفَّرَ أَخَاهُ بِغَيْرِ تَأْوِيلٍ فَهْوَ كَمَا قَالَ
Sahih al-Bukhari 6105

Narrated Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Whoever swears by a religion other than Islam (i.e. if he swears by saying that he is a non-Muslim in case he is telling a lie), then he is as he says if his oath is false and whoever commits suicide with something, will be punished with the same thing in the (Hell) fire, and cursing a believer is like murdering him, and whoever accuses a believer of disbelief, then it is as if he had killed him."

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا وُهَيْبٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَيُّوبُ، عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ ثَابِتِ بْنِ الضَّحَّاكِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ حَلَفَ بِمِلَّةٍ غَيْرِ الإِسْلاَمِ كَاذِبًا فَهْوَ كَمَا قَالَ، وَمَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ بِشَىْءٍ عُذِّبَ بِهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ، وَلَعْنُ الْمُؤْمِنِ كَقَتْلِهِ، وَمَنْ رَمَى مُؤْمِنًا بِكُفْرٍ فَهْوَ كَقَتْلِهِ ‏"‏‏.‏
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 6105
In-book reference : Book 78, Hadith 132
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 8, Book 73, Hadith 126
  (deprecated numbering scheme)