كتاب مناقب الأنصار
Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar)
Chapter: The emigration of the Prophet (saws) to Al-Madina
باب هِجْرَةُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَصْحَابِهِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ
Sahih al-Bukhari 3905

Narrated 'Aisha:

(the wife of the Prophet) I never remembered my parents believing in any religion other than the true religion (i.e. Islam), and (I don't remember) a single day passing without our being visited by Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were put to test (i.e. troubled by the pagans), Abu Bakr set out migrating to the land of Ethiopia, and when he reached Bark-al-Ghimad, Ibn Ad-Daghina, the chief of the tribe of Qara, met him and said, "O Abu Bakr! Where are you going?" Abu Bakr replied, "My people have turned me out (of my country), so I want to wander on the earth and worship my Lord." Ibn Ad-Daghina said, "O Abu Bakr! A man like you should not leave his home-land, nor should he be driven out, because you help the destitute, earn their livings, and you keep good relations with your Kith and kin, help the weak and poor, entertain guests generously, and help the calamity-stricken persons. Therefore I am your protector. Go back and worship your Lord in your town."

So Abu Bakr returned and Ibn Ad-Daghina accompanied him. In the evening Ibn Ad-Daghina visited the nobles of Quraish and said to them. "A man like Abu Bakr should not leave his homeland, nor should he be driven out. Do you (i.e. Quraish) drive out a man who helps the destitute, earns their living, keeps good relations with his Kith and kin, helps the weak and poor, entertains guests generously and helps the calamity-stricken persons?" So the people of Quraish could not refuse Ibn Ad-Daghina's protection, and they said to Ibn Ad-Daghina, "Let Abu Bakr worship his Lord in his house. He can pray and recite there whatever he likes, but he should not hurt us with it, and should not do it publicly, because we are afraid that he may affect our women and children." Ibn Ad-Daghina told Abu Bakr of all that. Abu Bakr stayed in that state, worshipping his Lord in his house. He did not pray publicly, nor did he recite Quran outside his house.

Then a thought occurred to Abu Bakr to build a mosque in front of his house, and there he used to pray and recite the Quran. The women and children of the pagans began to gather around him in great number. They used to wonder at him and look at him. Abu Bakr was a man who used to weep too much, and he could not help weeping on reciting the Quran. That situation scared the nobles of the pagans of Quraish, so they sent for Ibn Ad-Daghina. When he came to them, they said, "We accepted your protection of Abu Bakr on condition that he should worship his Lord in his house, but he has violated the conditions and he has built a mosque in front of his house where he prays and recites the Quran publicly. We are now afraid that he may affect our women and children unfavorably. So, prevent him from that. If he likes to confine the worship of his Lord to his house, he may do so, but if he insists on doing that openly, ask him to release you from your obligation to protect him, for we dislike to break our pact with you, but we deny Abu Bakr the right to announce his act publicly." Ibn Ad-Daghina went to Abu- Bakr and said, ("O Abu Bakr!) You know well what contract I have made on your behalf; now, you are either to abide by it, or else release me from my obligation of protecting you, because I do not want the 'Arabs hear that my people have dishonored a contract I have made on behalf of another man." Abu Bakr replied, "I release you from your pact to protect me, and am pleased with the protection from Allah."

At that time the Prophet (ﷺ) was in Mecca, and he said to the Muslims, "In a dream I have been shown your migration place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts." So, some people migrated to Medina, and most of those people who had previously migrated to the land of Ethiopia, returned to Medina. Abu Bakr also prepared to leave for Medina, but Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said to him, "Wait for a while, because I hope that I will be allowed to migrate also." Abu Bakr said, "Do you indeed expect this? Let my father be sacrificed for you!" The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Yes." So Abu Bakr did not migrate for the sake of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) in order to accompany him. He fed two she-camels he possessed with the leaves of As-Samur tree that fell on being struck by a stick for four months.

One day, while we were sitting in Abu Bakr's house at noon, someone said to Abu Bakr, "This is Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) with his head covered coming at a time at which he never used to visit us before." Abu Bakr said, "May my parents be sacrificed for him. By Allah, he has not come at this hour except for a great necessity." So Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) came and asked permission to enter, and he was allowed to enter. When he entered, he said to Abu Bakr. "Tell everyone who is present with you to go away." Abu Bakr replied, "There are none but your family. May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)!" The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "i have been given permission to migrate." Abu Bakr said, "Shall I accompany you? May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)!" Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Yes." Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! May my father be sacrificed for you, take one of these two she-camels of mine." Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) replied, "(I will accept it) with payment." So we prepared the baggage quickly and put some journey food in a leather bag for them. Asma, Abu Bakr's daughter, cut a piece from her waist belt and tied the mouth of the leather bag with it, and for that reason she was named Dhat-un-Nitaqain (i.e. the owner of two belts).

Then Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. 'Abdullah bin Abi Bakr who was intelligent and a sagacious youth, used to stay (with them) aver night. He used to leave them before day break so that in the morning he would be with Quraish as if he had spent the night in Mecca. He would keep in mind any plot made against them, and when it became dark he would (go and) inform them of it. 'Amir bin Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr, used to bring the milch sheep (of his master, Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. 'Amir bin Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Bani Abd bin Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-'As bin Wail As-Sahmi and he was on the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their two she camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And (when they set out), 'Amir bin Fuhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them along the sea-shore.

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ، قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ فَأَخْبَرَنِي عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَتْ لَمْ أَعْقِلْ أَبَوَىَّ قَطُّ إِلاَّ وَهُمَا يَدِينَانِ الدِّينَ، وَلَمْ يَمُرَّ عَلَيْنَا يَوْمٌ إِلاَّ يَأْتِينَا فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم طَرَفَىِ النَّهَارِ بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيَّةً، فَلَمَّا ابْتُلِيَ الْمُسْلِمُونُ خَرَجَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُهَاجِرًا نَحْوَ أَرْضِ الْحَبَشَةِ، حَتَّى بَلَغَ بَرْكَ الْغِمَادِ لَقِيَهُ ابْنُ الدَّغِنَةِ وَهْوَ سَيِّدُ الْقَارَةِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَيْنَ تُرِيدُ يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَخْرَجَنِي قَوْمِي، فَأُرِيدُ أَنْ أَسِيحَ فِي الأَرْضِ وَأَعْبُدَ رَبِّي‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ الدَّغِنَةِ فَإِنَّ مِثْلَكَ يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ لاَ يَخْرُجُ وَلاَ يُخْرَجُ، إِنَّكَ تَكْسِبُ الْمَعْدُومَ، وَتَصِلُ الرَّحِمَ وَتَحْمِلُ الْكَلَّ، وَتَقْرِي الضَّيْفَ، وَتُعِينُ عَلَى نَوَائِبِ الْحَقِّ، فَأَنَا لَكَ جَارٌ، ارْجِعْ وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ بِبَلَدِكَ‏.‏ فَرَجَعَ وَارْتَحَلَ مَعَهُ ابْنُ الدَّغِنَةِ، فَطَافَ ابْنُ الدَّغِنَةِ عَشِيَّةً فِي أَشْرَافِ قُرَيْشٍ، فَقَالَ لَهُمْ إِنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ لاَ يَخْرُجُ مِثْلُهُ وَلاَ يُخْرَجُ، أَتُخْرِجُونَ رَجُلاً يَكْسِبُ الْمَعْدُومَ، وَيَصِلُ الرَّحِمَ، وَيَحْمِلُ الْكَلَّ، وَيَقْرِي الضَّيْفَ، وَيُعِينُ عَلَى نَوَائِبِ الْحَقِّ فَلَمْ تُكَذِّبْ قُرَيْشٌ بِجِوَارِ ابْنِ الدَّغِنَةِ، وَقَالُوا لاِبْنِ الدَّغِنَةِ مُرْ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَلْيَعْبُدْ رَبَّهُ فِي دَارِهِ، فَلْيُصَلِّ فِيهَا وَلْيَقْرَأْ مَا شَاءَ، وَلاَ يُؤْذِينَا بِذَلِكَ، وَلاَ يَسْتَعْلِنْ بِهِ، فَإِنَّا نَخْشَى أَنْ يَفْتِنَ نِسَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَنَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ ذَلِكَ ابْنُ الدَّغِنَةِ لأَبِي بَكْرٍ، فَلَبِثَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ بِذَلِكَ يَعْبُدُ رَبَّهُ فِي دَارِهِ، وَلاَ يَسْتَعْلِنُ بِصَلاَتِهِ، وَلاَ يَقْرَأُ فِي غَيْرِ دَارِهِ، ثُمَّ بَدَا لأَبِي بَكْرٍ فَابْتَنَى مَسْجِدًا بِفِنَاءِ دَارِهِ وَكَانَ يُصَلِّي فِيهِ وَيَقْرَأُ الْقُرْآنَ، فَيَنْقَذِفُ عَلَيْهِ نِسَاءُ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَأَبْنَاؤُهُمْ، وَهُمْ يَعْجَبُونَ مِنْهُ، وَيَنْظُرُونَ إِلَيْهِ، وَكَانَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَجُلاً بَكَّاءً، لاَ يَمْلِكُ عَيْنَيْهِ إِذَا قَرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ، وَأَفْزَعَ ذَلِكَ أَشْرَافَ قُرَيْشٍ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، فَأَرْسَلُوا إِلَى ابْنِ الدَّغِنَةِ، فَقَدِمَ عَلَيْهِمْ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا أَجَرْنَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ بِجِوَارِكَ، عَلَى أَنْ يَعْبُدَ رَبَّهُ فِي دَارِهِ، فَقَدْ جَاوَزَ ذَلِكَ، فَابْتَنَى مَسْجِدًا بِفِنَاءِ دَارِهِ، فَأَعْلَنَ بِالصَّلاَةِ وَالْقِرَاءَةِ فِيهِ، وَإِنَّا قَدْ خَشِينَا أَنْ يَفْتِنَ نِسَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَنَا فَانْهَهُ، فَإِنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَقْتَصِرَ عَلَى أَنْ يَعْبُدَ رَبَّهُ فِي دَارِهِ فَعَلَ، وَإِنْ أَبَى إِلاَّ أَنْ يُعْلِنَ بِذَلِكَ فَسَلْهُ أَنْ يَرُدَّ إِلَيْكَ ذِمَّتَكَ، فَإِنَّا قَدْ كَرِهْنَا أَنْ نُخْفِرَكَ، وَلَسْنَا مُقِرِّينَ لأَبِي بَكْرٍ الاِسْتِعْلاَنَ‏.‏ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ فَأَتَى ابْنُ الدَّغِنَةِ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ قَدْ عَلِمْتَ الَّذِي عَاقَدْتُ لَكَ عَلَيْهِ، فَإِمَّا أَنْ تَقْتَصِرَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَرْجِعَ إِلَىَّ ذِمَّتِي، فَإِنِّي لاَ أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَسْمَعَ الْعَرَبُ أَنِّي أُخْفِرْتُ فِي رَجُلٍ عَقَدْتُ لَهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَإِنِّي أَرُدُّ إِلَيْكَ جِوَارَكَ وَأَرْضَى بِجِوَارِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ‏.‏ وَالنَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَئِذٍ بِمَكَّةَ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏"‏ إِنِّي أُرِيتُ دَارَ هِجْرَتِكُمْ ذَاتَ نَخْلٍ بَيْنَ لاَبَتَيْنِ ‏"‏‏.‏ وَهُمَا الْحَرَّتَانِ، فَهَاجَرَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ قِبَلَ الْمَدِينَةِ، وَرَجَعَ عَامَّةُ مَنْ كَانَ هَاجَرَ بِأَرْضِ الْحَبَشَةِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ، وَتَجَهَّزَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ قِبَلَ الْمَدِينَةِ، فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ عَلَى رِسْلِكَ، فَإِنِّي أَرْجُو أَنْ يُؤْذَنَ لِي ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَهَلْ تَرْجُو ذَلِكَ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَحَبَسَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ نَفْسَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِيَصْحَبَهُ، وَعَلَفَ رَاحِلَتَيْنِ كَانَتَا عِنْدَهُ وَرَقَ السَّمُرِ وَهْوَ الْخَبَطُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ قَالَ عُرْوَةُ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ فَبَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ يَوْمًا جُلُوسٌ فِي بَيْتِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ فِي نَحْرِ الظَّهِيرَةِ قَالَ قَائِلٌ لأَبِي بَكْرٍ هَذَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُتَقَنِّعًا ـ فِي سَاعَةٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَأْتِينَا فِيهَا ـ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِدَاءٌ لَهُ أَبِي وَأُمِّي، وَاللَّهِ مَا جَاءَ بِهِ فِي هَذِهِ السَّاعَةِ إِلاَّ أَمْرٌ‏.‏ قَالَتْ فَجَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاسْتَأْذَنَ، فَأُذِنَ لَهُ فَدَخَلَ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لأَبِي بَكْرٍ ‏"‏ أَخْرِجْ مَنْ عِنْدَكَ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ إِنَّمَا هُمْ أَهْلُكَ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَإِنِّي قَدْ أُذِنَ لِي فِي الْخُرُوجِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ الصَّحَابَةُ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏.‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَخُذْ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِحْدَى رَاحِلَتَىَّ هَاتَيْنِ‏.‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ بِالثَّمَنِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ فَجَهَّزْنَاهُمَا أَحَثَّ الْجَهَازِ، وَصَنَعْنَا لَهُمَا سُفْرَةً فِي جِرَابٍ، فَقَطَعَتْ أَسْمَاءُ بِنْتُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ قِطْعَةً مَنْ نِطَاقِهَا فَرَبَطَتْ بِهِ عَلَى فَمِ الْجِرَابِ، فَبِذَلِكَ سُمِّيَتْ ذَاتَ النِّطَاقِ ـ قَالَتْ ـ ثُمَّ لَحِقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ بِغَارٍ فِي جَبَلِ ثَوْرٍ فَكَمَنَا فِيهِ ثَلاَثَ لَيَالٍ، يَبِيتُ عِنْدَهُمَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَهْوَ غُلاَمٌ شَابٌّ ثَقِفٌ لَقِنٌ، فَيُدْلِجُ مِنْ عِنْدِهِمَا بِسَحَرٍ، فَيُصْبِحُ مَعَ قُرَيْشٍ بِمَكَّةَ كَبَائِتٍ، فَلاَ يَسْمَعُ أَمْرًا يُكْتَادَانِ بِهِ إِلاَّ وَعَاهُ، حَتَّى يَأْتِيَهُمَا بِخَبَرِ ذَلِكَ حِينَ يَخْتَلِطُ الظَّلاَمُ، وَيَرْعَى عَلَيْهِمَا عَامِرُ بْنُ فُهَيْرَةَ مَوْلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ مِنْحَةً مِنْ غَنَمٍ، فَيُرِيحُهَا عَلَيْهِمَا حِينَ يَذْهَبُ سَاعَةٌ مِنَ الْعِشَاءِ، فَيَبِيتَانِ فِي رِسْلٍ وَهْوَ لَبَنُ مِنْحَتِهِمَا وَرَضِيفِهِمَا، حَتَّى يَنْعِقَ بِهَا عَامِرُ بْنُ فُهَيْرَةَ بِغَلَسٍ، يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ تِلْكَ اللَّيَالِي الثَّلاَثِ، وَاسْتَأْجَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ رَجُلاً مِنْ بَنِي الدِّيلِ، وَهْوَ مِنْ بَنِي عَبْدِ بْنِ عَدِيٍّ هَادِيًا خِرِّيتًا ـ وَالْخِرِّيتُ الْمَاهِرُ بِالْهِدَايَةِ ـ قَدْ غَمَسَ حِلْفًا فِي آلِ الْعَاصِ بْنِ وَائِلٍ السَّهْمِيِّ، وَهْوَ عَلَى دِينِ كُفَّارِ قُرَيْشٍ فَأَمِنَاهُ، فَدَفَعَا إِلَيْهِ رَاحِلَتَيْهِمَا، وَوَاعَدَاهُ غَارَ ثَوْرٍ بَعْدَ ثَلاَثِ لَيَالٍ بِرَاحِلَتَيْهِمَا صُبْحَ ثَلاَثٍ، وَانْطَلَقَ مَعَهُمَا عَامِرُ بْنُ فُهَيْرَةَ وَالدَّلِيلُ فَأَخَذَ بِهِمْ طَرِيقَ السَّوَاحِلِ‏.‏
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 3905
In-book reference : Book 63, Hadith 130
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 5, Book 58, Hadith 245
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